In the thirteenth century, the Mongols built an Empire with the largest contiguous territory in the history of mankind. It stretched from Russia to South-East Asia and from Korea to the Middle East. Hordes of nomads destroyed hundreds of towns, destroyed dozens of States. The name of the founder of the Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan became a symbol of the whole Medieval era.
The First Mongol conquest affected China. The celestial Empire has surrendered to the nomads is not immediately. In the Mongol-Chinese wars, divided into three stages. The first was the invasion of the state of Jin (1211-1234). The campaign led by Genghis Khan himself. His army numbered a hundred thousand people. The Mongols joined the neighboring tribes of the Uighurs and Karluks.
The First was captured by the Fuzhou city in the North of Jin. Not far from him in the spring of 1211, there was a large battle ridge Echolyn. In this battle destroyed a large professional army Jin. Their first major victory, the Mongol army crossed the Great wall-the ancient barrier built against the Huns. Once in China, it began to loot the Chinese city. In winter, the nomads withdrew their steppe, but has since returned every spring for new attacks.
Under the blows of the nomads, the state of Jin began to fall apart. Against the Jurchen, who ruled the country, began to rebel ethnic Chinese and Khitans. Many of them supported the Mongols, hoping to use them to achieve independence. These calculations were frivolous. Destroying the state of some peoples, the great Genghis Khan is not going to create a state for others. For example, a breakaway from the Eastern Jin Liao lasted only twenty years. The Mongols skillfully made temporary allies. Cracking down on using their opponents, they get rid of these “friends”.
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In 1215 the Mongols captured and burned the Beijing (then bearing the name of an Easy). A few years steppe acted according to the tactics of the raids. After the death of Genghis Khan, Khagan (great Khan) was his son Ogedei. He moved to the tactics of the conquest. When Ogodei, the Mongols finally added Jin to his Empire. In 1234, the last ruler of this state Izzun committed suicide. The invasion of the Mongols ravaged Northern China, however, the destruction of Jin was only the beginning of the triumphant March of the nomads of Eurasia.
The Tangut state of XI Xia (Western Xia) was the next country to be conquered by the Mongols. Genghis Khan conquered that Kingdom in 1227. Xia occupied the territory to the West of Jin. It controlled part of the silk road that promised the nomads a rich booty. The nomads laid siege to and destroyed the Tangut capital of Zhongxing. Genghis Khan died on his return from this campaign. Now his heirs had to finish the job of the founder of the Empire.
The First Mongol conquest of the concerned States created by non-Chinese peoples in China. And Jin, and XI Xia were not celestial in the full sense of the word. Ethnic Chinese in the thirteenth century controlled only the southern half of China, where there was the Empire of the southern song. War with her began in 1235.
A Few years, the Mongols attacked China, exhausting the country of the ongoing raids. In 1238, sun undertook to pay tribute, after which punitive raids stopped. A fragile truce has been established for 13 years. The history of the Mongol conquests knows not one such case. Nomads “put up” from one country to concentrate on conquering other neighbors.
In 1251 the new great Khan was Mongke. He initiated a re-war with the sun. In charge of the campaign was delivered to the brother of Kublai Khan. The war lasted for many years. Yard song dynasty surrendered in 1276, although the struggle of separate groups for Chinese independence continued until 1279. Only after that the Mongol yoke was established over the whole of China. In 1271 Kublai Khan established the yuan dynasty. She ruled China until the mid-XIV century, when it was overthrown by a revolt of red bandages.
On their Eastern frontiers of the state created during the Mongol invasions, began to coexist with Korea. The military campaign against it began in 1231. Just followed six invasions. In the devastating invasions of Korea began to pay tribute to the state yuan. The Mongol yoke on the Peninsula ended in 1350.
On the opposite end of Asian nomads reached the limits of Morning Kingdom in Burma. The first Mongol campaigns in this country belong to 1270-m. Khubilai repeatedly postponed a decisive campaign against the pagan because of his own failures in neighbouring Vietnam. In Southeast Asia the Mongols had to contend not only with the local peoples, but also with the unaccustomed tropical climate. The troops suffered from malaria, which regularly retreated to their native lands. However, in 1287 conquest of Burma was nevertheless achieved.
Not all wars of conquest that were started by descendants of Genghis Khan, was successful. Twice (the first attempt was in 1274, the second – 1281) Habili tried to start the invasion of Japan. For this purpose, China had built a huge fleet, which had no parallel in the middle ages. The Mongols had no experience in sailing. Their Armada sufferedthe defeat of the Japanese ships. In the second expedition to the island of Kyushu was attended by 100 thousand people, but they failed to win.
The Other is not conquered by the Mongols, the country was India. Genghis Khan's descendants had heard about the riches of this mysterious region and wanted to conquer it. Northern India at that time belonged to the Delhi Sultanate. For the first time the Mongols invaded his territory in 1221. Nomads devastated some provinces (Lahore, Multan, Peshawar), but before the conquest it did not come. In 1235 they joined their power in Kashmir. At the end of the XIII century the Mongols invaded the Punjab and even reached Delhi. Despite the destructiveness of trekking, nomads and failed to gain a foothold in India.
In 1218 the Mongol hordes, before that, fought only in China for the first time turned their horses to the West. On their way was Central Asia. Here, on the territory of modern Kazakhstan, was the Karakitai khanate, founded by the Kara-Khitans (ethnically close with the Mongols and kiminami).
The Rules that state a longtime opponent of Genghis Khan Kuchluk. Preparing for combat, the Mongols were attracted to his side some of the other Turkic peoples of Semirechye. The nomads found support in the Karluk Khan Arslan, the ruler of the city of Almalyk Buzzara. In addition, they helped settled the Muslims that the Mongols were allowed to lead public worship (which is not allowed to do Kuchlug).
The Campaign against the Karakitai khanate was headed by one of the main Temnikov Genghis Khan Jebe. He conquered the entire Eastern Turkestan and Semirechye. Defeated, Kuchlug fled to the Pamir mountains. There he was caught and put to execution.
Another Mongol conquest, in short, was only the first step of conquering the whole of Central Asia. Another major state, in addition to the Karakitai khanate was inhabited by Iranians and Turks of the Islamic Kingdom of kharazm shahs. While knowing it was the Polovtsian (Kypchak). In other words, Khorezm was a complex ethnic conglomerate. It conquering, the Mongols skillfully with internal conflicts that the big powers.
Even Genghis Khan set with Khorezm outwardly neighborly relations. In 1215 he was sent to this country their merchants. Peace with Khwarezm was necessary for the Mongols to facilitate the conquest of neighboring Karakitai khanate. When a state was conquered, it was the turn of his neighbor.
The Mongol conquest was already known around the world, and in Khorezm to the imaginary friendship with the nomads treated with caution. A pretext for a rupture of peaceful relations with the nomads were discovered accidentally. The Governor of the city of Otrar suspected the Mongol merchants in espionage and executed them. After this mindless violence war became inevitable.
Genghis Khan opened the campaign against the Khwarazm in 1219. Stressing the importance of the expedition, he took with him the way all his sons. Ogedei and Chagatai went to lay siege to Otrar. Jochi led the second army, having moved in the direction of Jenda and Signak. The third army is targeting Khujand. Genghis Khan himself along with his son Tolui was followed by the richest metropolis of the middle Ages Samarkand. All these cities were captured and looted.
In Samarkand, where there were 400 thousand people, survived only every eighth. Otrar, Dzhend, Sygnak and many other cities of Central Asia was completely destroyed (now in their place remained only archaeological ruins). To 1223 Khorezm was conquered. Mongol invasion seized a huge area from the Caspian sea to the Indus.
Having Conquered Khorezm, the nomads opened the future road to the West – on the one hand Russia, and on the other – in the middle East. When the unified Mongol Empire split up in Central Asia there was the state of the Ilkhanate, ruled by descendants of Genghis Khan's grandson Hulagu. This Kingdom lasted until 1335.
After the conquest of Khorezm by the Western neighbours of the Mongols, the Seljuk Turks. Their state Konisky Sultanate, located on the territory of modern Turkey on the Peninsula of Asia Minor. In this region there was another historical name-Anatoly. In addition to the state of the Seljuks, there was a Greek Kingdom – the debris, arising after the taking of Constantinople by the crusaders and the fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1204.
The Conquest of Anatolia began the Mongol Temnik Bigu, who was the Governor-General in Iran. He called the Seljuk Sultan Kay Khusrau II, to acknowledge himself a tributary nomads. Humiliating offer was rejected. In 1241, in response to the demarche of bigu invaded Anatolia and with the army came to Erzurum. After a two-month siege the city fell. Its walls were destroyed by the firing of catapults, and many people died or were robbed.
Kay-Khosrow II, however, was not going to give up. He enlisted the support of the Greek States (Trebizond and Nicaea empires), as well as Georgian and Armenian princes. In 1243 the army antimongoloid coalition met with the invaders in a mountain gorge the CES-Dag. The nomads used their favorite tactic. The Mongols, pretending to be retreated, made a diversion, and suddenly counterattacked opponents. The army of the Seljuks and their allies were defeated. After this victory, the Mongols conquered Anatolia. According to the Treaty, one half Konisskogo of the Sultanate was annexed to theirEmpire, and the other was to pay tribute.
In 1256 a grandson of Chinggis Khan, Hulagu led the campaign in the middle East. The campaign lasted for 4 years. It was one of the largest military campaigns of the Mongols. First, under the impact of the steppe was the nizari state in Iran. Hulagu crossed the Amu Darya and captured a Muslim town in Kuhistan.
Winning hitoritabi, Mongolian Khan turned his eyes on Baghdad, ruled by Caliph al-Mustasim. The last monarch of the dynasty of the Abbasids did not have sufficient strength to withstand the Horde, but he arrogantly refused to peacefully submit to strangers. In 1258 the Mongols besieged Baghdad. The invaders used siege weapons, and then began to assault. The city was completely surrounded and deprived of outside support. Two weeks later, Baghdad fell.
The Capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, the pearl of the Islamic world, was destroyed. The Mongols spared not the unique monuments of architecture, the Academy had been destroyed, thrown in the Tiger's most valuable books. Looted Baghdad turned into a pile of Smoking ruins. Its fall symbolized the end of the medieval Golden age of Islam.
After Baghdad started the Mongol campaign in Palestine. In 1260 a battle was fought at ain Julat. Egyptian Mamluks defeated the aliens. The reason for the defeat of the Mongols was the fact that on the eve of Hulegu learned of the death of Mongke Khagan, retreated to the Caucasus. In Palestine he left warlord Kabugu with an insignificant army, which naturally was defeated by the Arabs. Further into the Muslim Middle East, the Mongols could not move. The border of their Empire into the Tigris and Euphrates.
The First Mongol campaign in Europe started when the nomads, who fled presledovat ruler of Khorezm reached the Polovtsian steppe. At the same time about the necessity of the conquest of the qipchaqs spoke Genghis Khan himself. In 1220 the army of nomads came to the Caucasus, from where he moved to the Old world. They devastated the lands of the Lezgin peoples on the territory of modern Dagestan. Then the Mongols first encountered the Cumans and the Alans.
The Kipchaks, realizing the danger of uninvited guests, sent an Embassy in the Russian land, asking for specific East Slavic rulers for help. The call responded Mstislav the Old (Grand Prince of Kiev), Mstislav Udatny (Prince Galitsky), Daniel R. (Prince Volyn), Mstislav Svyatoslavich (Prince of Chernigov) and some other lords.
It was in 1223. The princes agreed to stop the Mongols in the Polovtsian steppe, before they were able to attack Russia. During the fees of the United squad to Rurik arrived Mongolian Embassy. Nomads suggested the Russians not to stand up for Polovtsian. The princes were ordered to kill the ambassadors and moved to the steppe.
Soon, on the territory of modern Donetsk region was a tragic battle on the Kalka. 1223 year was a year of sadness for all the Russian land. The coalition of princes and Polovtsian suffered a crushing defeat. The superior forces of the Mongols defeated the United squad. Cumans, flinching under the onslaught, fled, leaving the Russian army without support.
In the battle killed at least 8 of the princes, including Mstislav of Kiev and Mstislav of Chernigov. Together with them, life has lost many noble boyars. The black sign was the battle of the Kalka. 1223 year could be year of full-fledged invasion of the Mongols, but after the bloody victory of those have decided that it is better to return to their ulus. Several years in the Russian principalities on new formidable Horde haven't heard anything.
Shortly before his death, Genghis Khan divided his Empire into zones of responsibility at the head of each of which stood one of the sons of the conqueror. Ulus in the Polovtsian steppes went to Jochi. He died prematurely, and in 1235 by the decision of the Kurultay his son Batu began to organize a campaign in Europe. The grandson of Genghis Khan gathered a huge army and went to conquer the Mongols to distant countries.
The First victim of a new invasion of nomads became Volga Bulgaria. Is a state on the territory of modern Tatarstan for several years led to the frontier wars with the Mongols. However, until now the steppe was limited to small raids. Now Batu was the army size of about 120 thousand people. This is a colossal army easily captured the main Bulgarian cities: Bulgar, Bilyar, juketau and Suvar.
Having Conquered the Volga Bulgars and smashing its allies Polovtsy, the aggressors moved further West. Thus began the Mongol conquest of Russia. In December 1237, the nomads were on the territory of the Ryazan Principality. Its capital was taken and destroyed mercilessly. Modern Ryazan built a few dozen kilometers from Staraya Ryazan, the site of which is still standing only a medieval settlement.
An Advanced army of Vladimir-Suzdal Principality fought with the Mongols in the battle of Kolomna. In that battle he killed one of Genghis Khan's sons - Kulgan. Soon the Horde was attacked by a band of Ryazan hero Evpaty Kolovrat, who became a national hero. Despite persistent resistance, the Mongols defeated every army, and took all new city.
At the beginning of 1238 fell Moscow, Vladimir, Tver, Pereyaslavl-Zalessky, Russia, Torzhok. The small town of Kozelsk defended for so long, Batu,razing it to the ground, nicknamed the fortress of "wicked city". In the battle of the river city private corps, commanded Temnik Burunday, destroyed the combined Russian team headed by Vladimir Prince Yuri Vsevolodovich, who cut off the head.
More than other Russian cities luck Novgorod. Taking Torzhok, the Horde did not dare to go too far to the cold North and moved South. So, Mongol invasion of Rus ' happily bypassed a key commercial and cultural center of the country. Tkacheva in the southern steppe, Batu made a small break. He gave to feed the horses and regrouped the army. The army was divided into several groups to solve episodic tasks in the struggle against the Polovtsy and Alans.
Already in 1239, the Mongols attacked southern Russia. In October, fell Chernigov. The ruin has been Glukhov, Putivl, Rylsk. In 1240 the nomads besieged and took Kiev. Soon the same fate awaited Galich. Sacking a key Russian city, Batu did Rurik its tributaries. Thus began the period of the Golden Horde, which lasted until the XV century. Eldest inheritance was recognized as the Vladimir Principality. Its rulers received the Mongols permissive labels. This humiliating order was interrupted only with the rise of Moscow.
The Devastating Mongol invasion of Russia was the last European campaign. Continuing the journey West, the nomads came to the borders of Hungary and Poland. Some Russian princes (as Michael of Chernigov) fled to these kingdoms, asking for help from the Catholic monarchs.
In 1241, the Mongols took and sacked the Polish town of Zawichost, Lublin, Sandomierz. Last fall kraków. The Polish lords were able to enlist the help of the Germans and the Catholic military orders. The coalition army, these forces were defeated at the battle of Legnica. The battle was lost Krakow Prince Henry II.
The Last victim from the Mongols, became Hungary. Passing the Carpathian mountains and Transylvania, nomads ravaged Oradea, Temesvar and Bistrita. Another Mongol detachment walked with fire and sword in Wallachia. The third army reached the banks of the Danube and captured the fortress of Arad.
All this time the Hungarian king Bela IV was in pest, where he raised an army. Meet him went an army led by Batu. In April 1241, the two armies clashed in the battle on the river Sino. Bela IV was defeated. The king fled to neighbouring Austria, and the Mongols continued to pillage the Hungarian lands. Batu had even attempted to cross the Danube and attack the Holy Roman Empire, but eventually abandoned this plan.
Moving West, the Mongols invaded Croatia (also owned by Hungary) and Zagreb ruined. Their advanced troops reached the shores of the Adriatic sea. This was the limit of Mongol expansion. The nomads began to connect Central Europe to his power, satisfied with a long robbery. The border of the Golden Horde began to pass along the Dniester river.
Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."
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