Nikolai Karamzin, whose biography begins on 1 December 1766, was born in Simbirsk province, in a poor noble family educated and enlightened parents. First educated at a private boarding school Professor Sadana. Then, like many other secular young people, he went to serve in the guards, which was one of the best.
It was at this time Nikolai Karamzin, a brief biography which is presented in this article, for the first time clearly aware of the need of its own way, different from ordinary: a successful career, position in society, ranks and honours. All this does not attracted to the future writer. After serving in the army less than a year, he is low in the rank of Lieutenant in 1784 he resigned and returned to his native Simbirsk.
Outwardly Karamzin lives in a disorderly, dissipated life of a secular person, shining Metropolitan manners and courteous treatment of the ladies. Nikolai Mikhailovich fashionably dressed, well groomed, playing cards. At provincial balls he was clever and brilliant knight. But all this was merely the external manifestation of his character.
At this time, Karamzin, whose biography is quite rich in unexpected turns and events seriously think about their place in life, reads a lot, met with interesting people. He has already received a good education, but continues to evolve, acquiring new knowledge in various fields. Most Karamzin interested in history, literature and philosophy.
A family Friend Ivan Turgenev, a Mason and a writer held in great friendship with Nikolai Ivanovich Novikov (who was also a Mason, a talented journalist, publisher and satirist), played a role in the life of the future writer. On his advice, Nikolay moved to Moscow and met with the circle Novikov. Thus began a new period in his life, including the period from 1785 to 1789 years. Say a few words about it separately.
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A Four-year fellowship with a circle of Freemasons really changed the way Karamzin, his life and thinking. Note that the history of Freemasonry in Russia is still not fully understood. It long time was considered science as basically reactionary. However, in recent years point of view on this movement a few changes.
The Masonic Lodge represent a particular moral-religious circles, first founded in England in the eighteenth century, and later in other States, including in our country. In the basis code, which professed masons, is the need of the spiritual self of man. They had their political agenda, largely related to religious and moral. For the activities of masons was typical of the theatrical ritual, mystery, chivalry and other rituals, a mystical hue. She was full of intellectually and spiritually, had high moral principles and seriousness. The masons were kept apart. Here's a described in the General atmosphere surrounded since Karamzin. He began to communicate with interesting people: Nikolai Ivanovich Novikov (see photo below) and Alexei Mikhailovich Kutuzov. The influence of such remarkable individuals gave a powerful impetus to the development of writing talent and creative self-determination.
First, Karamzin translates into Russian the language of artistic prose, and later began to write for the magazine "Children's reading", the publisher of which was Nikolai Ivanovich Novikov, his first poetic works. It was during this period he realized his talent as a writer.
But here ends the period of self-determination, and with it the Masonic period, the life of a young writer. The scope of Masonic lodges become close to him, he wants to know life in its richness, variety and diversity. In order to become a professional writer, you want to experience to experience its good and bad sides. Therefore, Karamzin, whose biography is discussed in the framework of this publication, leaves the masons and goes on a journey.
For this Nikolai laid his hereditary estate, and decided to spend all the money on a trip to Europe, then to describe it. It was a very bold and unusual step for the time. After all, Karamzin, he meant the abandonment of life on income from hereditary estates and support themselves by the labor of the serfs. Now Nikolai Mikhailovich had to earn a living by their own labor professional writer.
Abroad, he spent about a year and a half, has traveled to Switzerland, Germany, England and France. Karamzin, whose biography is outlined in this article, get acquainted with interesting and prominent people of these States, not feeling like a hick, representing their country in a very worthy manner. He watched, listened, recorded. Nicholas Mikhailovich was attracted to the dwellings of the people, historic monuments, factories, universities, street festivals, restaurants, rustic wedding.
He assessed and compared the characters and customs of a particular nationality, studied the peculiarities of speech, wrote in his book descriptions of street scenes, was taking notes of various interviews and own reflection. In the autumn of 1790 Karamzin returned to Russia, and then began to publish "Moscow journal", which puts your articles, stories, poems. Here was printed the famous "letters of a Russian traveler", and which brought him huge fame, "Poor Liza".
In the next few years, Nikolai Mikhailovich publishes anthologies, among which was the three-volume anthology "Onida" written in verse, and a collection of "My trifles", which includes various novels and poems. To Karamzin comes fame. It is known and loved not only in the two capitals (St. Petersburg and Moscow), but throughout Russia.
One of the first works of Karamzin's prose is published in 1803, "Martha posadnitsa" (genre - historical story). It was written long before Russia began a fascination with the novels of sir Walter Scott. In this story is manifested a tendency Karamzin to antiquity, the classics as an unattainable ideal of morality, scheduled to begin in mid-1790-ies in utopia "Athenian life".
In the epic, the ancient view of the struggle of Novgorod with Moscow has presented in his work, Nikolai Karamzin. "Governor's wife" raised important philosophical questions: about the monarchy and the Republic, about the people and the leaders, the "divine" historical predestination, and disobedience to him individuals. The sympathies of the author was clearly on the side of Novgorod and Martha, not monarchical Moscow. This story was discovered and ideological contradictions of the writer. The historical truth was undoubtedly on the side of the Novgorodians. However, Novgorod is doomed, bad omens are the harbingers of the imminent destruction of the city, and later they come true.
But the greatest success was the novel "Poor Liza", published in 1792. Common in Western literature of the eighteenth century, the story of how a nobleman had seduced a farmer or a housewife, in Russian literature first developed in this novel Karamzin. Biography morally clean, beautiful girls, and the thought that such a tragic destiny can meet and in reality, contributed to the great success of this work. It was important that N.M. Karamzin ("Poor Liza" became his "calling card") taught his readers to notice the beauty of mother nature and love her. Humanistic orientation works have been invaluable for literature.
In 1792, the year appeared the novel "Natalia, the boyar's daughter". It is not as well known as the "Poor Liza," however, raises a very important moral questions that troubled his contemporaries.GN M. Karamzin. One of the most important in the piece is the issue of honor.
Alex beloved Natalia, was an honest man, who served the Russian Tsar. So he confessed to his "crime" that has kidnapped the daughter of Matvey Andreyev, a favorite nobleman of the Emperor. But the king blesses their marriage, seeing that Alex is an honourable man. The same is the father of the girl. Finishing the story, the author writes that the couple lived happily ever after and were buried together. They are distinguished by sincere love and devotion to the sovereign.
In the story, which was created by Karamzin ("the boyar's daughter"), a question of honor is inseparable from the service of the king. Happy is he who loves the Lord. So the life of this family feels so good, after all, virtue is rewarded.
The Provincial youth read the works of Karamzin. Inherent in his works is light, conversational, natural style, elegant and at the same time, democratic artistic manner was revolutionary from the point of view of perception of works by the public. First formed the concept fascinating, interesting read, and with it the literary worship of the author.
Nikolai Mikhailovich Karamzin, biography and creativity which attracted many people, enjoys a great fame. In Moscow ...
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