This term unfamiliar to the ear of many patients. In our country doctors rarely use it and display the data Ailments in a separate group. However, in the world medicine in the lexicon of the doctors, the term "degenerative" be found constantly. Their group includes those diseases, which are constantly progressing, causing deterioration of the tissues, organs, and their structure. In degenerative diseases of the cells are constantly changing, their condition worsens, it affects the tissues and organs. In this case, the word "degeneration" means a steady and gradual degeneration, the deterioration of something.
Diseases of this group is quite heterogeneous clinically, but they are characterized by a similar flow. At any time a healthy adult or child can spontaneously get sick after exposure to some precipitating factors, may suffer Central nervous system, and other systems and organs. Clinical symptoms gradually increase, the patient's condition invariably worsens. The progression variable. Hereditary degenerative diseases eventually lead to that person loses many of the basic functions (speech, movement, sight, hearing, thought processes, etc.). Very often these diseases are fatal.
The Cause of hereditary-degenerative diseases can be called pathological genes. For this reason, the age of the manifestation of the disease is difficult to calculate, it depends on gene expression. The severity of the disease will be more pronounced with the active manifestation of the pathological signs of the gene.
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In the 19th century, neurologists have described a similar disease, but could not explain the reason of their occurrence. Thanks to modern neuroscience molecular genetics has opened many biochemical defects in the genes that are responsible for the development of symptoms of the diseases in this group. Traditionally, the symptoms get eponine name, this – a tribute to the works of scientists who first described these diseases.
Degenerative diseases have similar features. These include:
The Most common and well-known degenerative diseases:
Most people relate these illnesses to “terrible”, but this is not the whole list. There are diseases, some of which are not even heard.
At the heart of degenerative disease of osteoarthritis-degeneration of joint cartilage as a result of subsequent pathological changes in epiphyseal bone.
Osteoarthritis is the most common articular disease, which affects 10-12% of people, with age, the number is only growing. Often affects the hip or knee joints for both women and men. Degenerative diseases-osteoarthritis are divided into primary and secondary.
Primary arthrosis is of the total number of diseases 40%, degenerative process starts as a result of great physical exertion, with a sharp increase in body weight, with age-related changes.
Secondary arthrosis is 60% of the total number. Often arise as a consequence of mechanical injuries, intraarticular fractures, congenital dysplasia, after infectious joint diseases, in case of aseptic necrosis.
In General, arthritis is divided into primary and secondary is purely arbitrary, since underlying them are the same pathogenic factors, which may be a different combination. Most often to determine which factor was the main and which is secondary is not possible.
After degenerative changes, joint surfaces in contact excessively put pressure on each other. As a result, to decreased mechanical impact, grow osteophytes. The pathological process progresses, more joints become deformed, disrupts the function of the muscular-ligamentous apparatus. Movements become limited, formed a contracture.
Degenerative diseases of joints, coxarthrosis and gonarthrosis are quite common.
Ranked according to the frequency of occurrence is the hip – the deformation of the hip joint. At the beginning of the disease leads to disability and later to disability. Occur the disease can often 35 to 40 years. Women suffer from this more often than men. Symptoms occur gradually, dependent on age, weight of the patient, physical activity. The initial stages have no symptoms. Sometimes one feels fatigue when standing and when walking or carrying heavy loads. As degenerative changes pain increase. Disappear completely only at rest, during sleep. At the slightest load resume. When running the form constant pain can worsen at night.
Osteoarthritis takes the second place with 50% among diseases of the knee. Milder than the hip. For many, the process stops at stage 1. Even advanced cases rarely lead to the loss of health.
4 Different forms of gonarthrosis:
Degenerative diseases of the spine osteochondrosis, spondylosis, spondylosis.
Osteochondrosis degenerative processes begin in the intervertebral discs in polipozom core. In spondylosis, the process involved the bodies of adjacent vertebrae. When spondylosis occurs, the lesion of the intervertebral joints. Degenerative-dystrophic diseases of the spine is very dangerous and poorly amenable to treatment. The degree of pathology are determined by the functional and morphological characteristics of disks.
People older than 50 years suffer from these disorders in 90% of cases. Lately there is a tendency to rejuvenation of the spine, they occur even in young patients aged 17-20 years. Osteochondrosis often seen in people who are engaged in excessive physical labor.
The Clinical manifestations depend on the localization of the expressed processes and may represent a neurological, static, autonomic dysfunction.
Degenerative diseases of the nervous system combine a large group. All of the disease characterized by the destruction of groups of neurons that connects the body with the defined external and internal factors. This occurs as a result of violations of cellular processes, it is often due to genetic defects.
Many degenerative diseases manifest limited or diffuse atrophy of the brain, certain structures there is a microscopic decrease in neurons. In some cases there is only a disturbance in the functions of the cells, their death does not occur, atrophy of the brain does not develop (essential tremor, idiopathic dystonia).
The vast majority of degenerative diseases have long periods of ulterior development, but steadily progressive form.
Degenerative diseases of the CNS are classified according to the clinical manifestations reflect the involvement of certain structures of the nervous system. Stand out:
Neuro-degenerative disease with symptoms of dementia occur more frequently in the elderly. The most common is Alzheimer's disease. Progresses in individuals older than 80 years. In 15% of cases the disease runs in families. Developed over 10 to 15 years.
Start the destruction of neurons in the associative areas of the parietal cortex, temporal and frontal, with auditory, visual and somatosensory areas remain unaffected. In addition to the disappearance of neurons, the important characteristics are deposits in senile plaques of amyloid, as well as thickening and thickening neurofibrillary structures degenerating and surviving neurons, they contain theprotein. All older persons, such changes occur in small quantities, but in Alzheimer's they are more pronounced. There are also cases when the clinic reminded for dementia, but many plaques were observed.
Atrophied area has a reduced blood supply, it can be an adaptation of the disappearance of neurons. The disease can not be a consequence of atherosclerosis.
Parkinson's Disease is otherwise called shaking palsy. This degenerative brain disease progresses slowly, thus selectively affects dofaminergicheskie neurons, manifested by a combination of akinesia with rigidity, postural instability and tremor at rest. The cause of the disease is still unclear. There is a theory that the diseasehereditary.
The Prevalence of the disease is broad and reaches in patients after 65 years in a ratio of 1 out of 100.
The disease Manifests gradually. The first manifestations – trembling of limbs, sometimes changes in gait, stiffness. First, patients notice pain in the back and limbs. The symptoms at first unilateral, then connects the second side.
The Main manifestation of the disease – akinesia or depletion, slow movements. The face becomes mask-like (hypomimia). Flashing rare, so glance piercing. Friendly motion lost (flapping of the arms when walking). Subtle movements of the fingers are broken. The patient with difficulty changing position, rising from a chair or turning in my sleep. It is monotonous and muffled. Steps become shuffling, short. The main manifestation of parkinsonism-tremor of hands, lips, jaw, head, occurs at rest. The tremor may depend on emotions and other movements of the patient.
In the later stages is sharply restricted mobility, lose the ability to balance. Many patients have mental disorders, but only some develop dementia.
The Speed of progression of the disease is different, can be many years. To end of life patients completely immobilized, swallowing is difficult, there is a risk of aspiration. Ultimately death most often occurs from bronchopneumonia.
A Degenerative disease characterized by benign jitter, not to be confused with Parkinson's disease. Hand tremor occurs with movement or hold the posture. 60% the disease is hereditary, and manifests itself most often in the age of 60 years. It is believed that the cause of hyperkinesis is a violation between the cerebellum and nuclei of the trunk.
The Tremor may worsen with fatigue and excitement, drinking coffee, certain drugs. It so happens that the tremor involves the head movement by type “no” or “Yes”, can connect the legs, the tongue, lips, vocal cords, torso. Over time, the amplitude of the tremor increases, and this disrupts the normal quality of life.
Life expectancy is not suffering, neurological symptoms, intellectual functions are preserved.
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