Patau Syndrome

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2018-04-01 11:44:10

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Patau Syndrome refers to a category of diseases caused by quantitative pathology of chromosomal set. The disease is characterized by the so-called trisomy-the presence of additional thirteenth chromosome.

Chromosomal nature of the disease was first identified in 1960, Dr. Klaus Patau, in whose honor it was named. The disease has another name – “Trisomy 13”. Its frequency is one case per 5 – 7 thousand newborns. The disease is diagnosed with equal frequency in both sexes.

The Development of this disease is due to prachodayat of chromosomes during meiosis (the method of dividing the cells responsible for the decrease in the daughter cells number of chromosomes). As a result of violations of this process, the chromosome set appears plus the thirteenth chromosome, which is the underlying cause of the pathological changes and disturbances of fetal development.

Today the chromosomal theory of heredity does not confirm that the disease can be transmitted from generation to generation. It is believed that a violation of the fission process chromosomes and their neraskhozhdenie – a random event that occurred during the merger of genetic sets of sperm and egg at the moment of conception.

It is Noted that the risk of the fetus of this disease rises considerably with increasing age of mothers. In addition, there are research results that prove the possibility of such chromosomal abnormalities under the action of radiation.

Many chromosomal defects, due to numeric abnormalities of chromosomes are quite specific symptoms. Due to this disease can be diagnosed even without further research – by the appearance of the newborn. patau Syndrome refers to these diseases, and is characterized by multiple abnormalities of development.

The newborn child with patau syndrome, there are the following congenital malformations: kerapeletswe anomalies-microcephaly, narrow palpebral fissure, small eyes, clouding of the cornea, low sloping forehead, sunken nasal bridge, cleft lip and palate, as well as Megaplast, developmental abnormalities of the feet.

Almost always in newborns with patau syndrome revealed malformations of the intestine, Central nervous system, kidneys, heart, genitals. Sick children suffer from deafness, mental retardation, convulsive disorder, hypotonia of the muscles.

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On the basis of clinical manifestations that characterize the syndrome Patau, the preliminary diagnosis is visually immediately after birth. An ultrasound scan allows visualization of internal defects and chromosome analysis confirms the presence of quantitative chromosomal abnormalities.

Usually children diagnosed with patau syndrome die in the first months of life as a result of their severe abnormalities of the development of almost all internal organs. Few of them survive to one year of age. However, some patients live for several years, moreover, with the proper care and appropriate treatment, the life expectancy of such children increases to 5 – 10 years. However, they all tend to suffer a profound degree of mental retardation – idiocy.

As for medical aid, it is usually aimed only at elimination of the physiological problems. Usually carried out surgical correction of pathological changes of internal organs to maintain basic life functions, as well as the plastic lip and palate. The rest are shown purely symptomatic treatment, prevention of infectious and respiratory diseases, nursing care.

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