In the first years of life the child has the ability to absorb a huge amount of important information. There is a special method of formation of elementary mathematical concepts, with which the little man gets logical thinking skills.
Diagnosis, repeatedly held in the state preschool institutions, confirm the possibility of formation of 4-7 years of age, the foundations of mathematical thinking. The information in huge volume falls on the child, involves finding the answers with application of logical skills. A variety of role-playing FAN in the middle group teach preschoolers to perceive objects, to compare and to generalize observed phenomena and understand the elementary interactions between them. As the main source of knowledge in this age is intellectual and sensual experience. The child is difficult to self correct to build a logical chain, therefore, the leading role in the formation of thinking belongs to the teacher. Any activity at the FEMP in the middle group aimed at the development of children preparing for school. Modern realities require teacher application of the basics of developmental education, active use of innovative techniques and methods in developing the Foundation of mathematical thinking.
Modern methods of formation of elementary mathematical skills in children of preschool age, a long historical path. The question about the methods and content of the preschool learning arithmetic was considered in the 17th and 18th centuries Russian and foreign teachers and psychologists. In their educational systems, designed for 4-6 year old children named after K. D. Ushinsky, I. G. Pestalozzi, J. A. Kamensky pointed out the importance of forming a clear idea of the space, measurements of different quantities, sizes of items, was offered the algorithm of actions.
Children in preschool age, especially given the physical and mental development, exhibit unstable interest in the following mathematical concepts: time, form, number, space. It is difficult to link these categories to each other, to organize them, to apply their knowledge to specific life situations. According to the new Federal educational standards developed for kindergarten, the FAN in the middle group is a mandatory element.
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In the concept of preschool education show clearly the requirements for the formation of cognitive interest of future first-graders, and part of it is just mathematical education.
Teaching kids the basics of such a difficult science as mathematics in modern education the important place. Such interest is caused by several reasons:
Its Main focus is the formation of logical abilities and perceptions, stimulating mental activity, the development of intelligence of preschoolers. Any activity at the FEMP in the middle group aimed at the development of the simplest of judgments, development of grammatically correct speech.
The Mathematical preparation of future students provided by the program, in addition to teaching kids counting skills, developing ideas about number and number of the first ten. FAN in the middle group involves the division of objects into equal parts, measure object with conditional measurements, determine the volume of solids and liquid bodies. the Guys in the performance of tasks proposed by the teacher, develop a good eye, get ideas about a variety of geometric shapes, shape the understanding of spatial interactions.
During the mathematics lessons the teacher implements not only the basic educational goals of FEMP in the middle group helps to implement the educational function. Teacher gives a presentation to pupils about the rules of behavior, forms in them the discipline, diligence, self-discipline. Work on the formation the kids the simplest of mathematical concepts a teacher is in the morning, afternoon, evening time, 2-3 times a week. FAN in the middle group on the GEF helps the teacher to develop in his players active citizenship, commitment, perseverance and restraint.
Fixing logic skills are sculpting, drawing. The design of parts out of paper (origami) contributes to the consolidation of knowledge about geometric figures, size, number of subjects. Application help to develop spatial concepts, practiced during these sessions the qualities of preschoolers as punctuality, perseverance. Sports and music lessons include elements of the game. Mathematics is indispensable incharging time, exercise. Outdoor games the teacher uses to consolidate initial mathematical concepts studied in the classroom. In summer, FAN in the middle group is in the process of walking trips.
As a base for learning math skills of preschoolers, applied didactic methods: consistency, consistency, individuality, consistency. The knowledge that the teacher transmits to the kids from lesson to lesson, become more complex, taking into account the level of development of children. To repeat apply special role-playing game. Mathematics gets in preschoolers favourite subject, they will gladly perform the job of teacher, looking for similarities and differences in objects, but focusing on small details to find the answer to his question.
Studies suggest that teachers use different teaching methods: clarity, gaming technology: verbal conversations, mobile games, front of the polls.
A Special place in preschool math education belongs to educational training. Any synopsis on the FAN in the middle group involves the use of visual AIDS (manuals, references, paintings, photographs), so the kids get a complete understanding of the objects, their properties and characteristics.
Depending on the educational objectives, individual and age peculiarities of children, there are certain rules that must fully correspond to the visual math materials:
E. V. Serbina in his book suggests ‘pedagogical commandments”, which uses in the work of the teacher of the preschool:
Preschool age does not imply the use of negative markers, censure on the part of the caregiver. You can't compare the achievements of one of the baby with results of another pupil, only allowed analysis of individual growth of a preschooler. The teacher should use the methods and techniques that make his team a genuine interest. Class “forced” does not benefit, on the contrary, they will lead to the formation of negative attitudes towards mathematics, computational skills. If you have personal contact and friendly relations between the child and his mentor guaranteed a positive result.
In pre-school mathematics education the following sections: size, number, geometric shape, orientation in space in time. In four years the students have been learning the skills of counting, use of numbers, oral carry out simple computing operations. In this period you can play games with dice of different sizes, colors, shapes.
During the game the tutor develops in children the following skills:
GEF for preschool contains a list of the concepts that must be formed from the graduates of kindergartens. Future first-graders must be known of the form of items, structural parts of various geometric shapes, sizes tel to compare two geometries, 6-7-year-old child uses speech and cognitive skills. Research and design methods help to develop in kids curiosity. The teacher in the development of mathematical activities picks such forms and methods of work, which would promote the comprehensive development of preschool children. In kindergarten in the first place is not the content of the lessons, and the formation of future student.
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