In the Western part of the Balkan Peninsula is washed on the South-West the waves of the Adriatic sea the ancient state of Montenegro. The history of the country outlined in this article, is an endless struggle for national sovereignty, culminating in 2006 with the recognition of its independence.
The History of Montenegro prior to the I century BC, are poorly understood. It is only known that this region was inhabited by Illyrians – representatives of the large group of Indo-European peoples. In the I century BC the territory was conquered by Rome, who kept her under his control, until, until in the IV century it collapsed under the invasion of the barbarians.
Soon after this begins the process of settling the territory of present Montenegro Slavs. Particularly intense it was in the VII century, and after 300 years in the Balkans and the areas adjacent to the shores of the Adriatic, formed an independent Slavic state called Duklja. Their sovereignty the people of the country had to win in the bloody and not always successful battles with the foreigners.
About the life of the Slavic tribes on the territory of modern Montenegro preserved the information gleaned from the records of the Byzantine Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus (905-959). In them he talks about the peoples who inhabited the area, and founded the city of Skadar, Budva, Ulcinj and Kotor. Christianity in ancient Dukla established in the end of the IX century, and came here the same way and to Russia from Byzantium.
In the eleventh century, Duklja and all coexist with it the territory of Serbia was seized by Byzantium, who was then in the period of its greatest prosperity, and carried out wide colonial policy. The history of Montenegro from ancient times was full of dramatic events, but these years brought her especially a lot of blood, as the center of opposition to the invaders moved from the interior of Serbia to the Adriatic, and there has been major battles.
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In that period the most striking historical figure who played an important role in the history of the Principality of Duklja (the future of Montenegro), was its ruler Stefan Vojislav. In 1035 year, he led a popular uprising against the Byzantines, but defeated, was taken prisoner and was sent to Constantinople. However, despite all the difficulties, Stefan managed to escape from captivity, then having gone a long way to return to Duklja, and there to re-take power into their own hands.
Finally, in 1042 in the battle near the city of Bar was the decisive battle in which duklianska army, founded and led by Prince Stefan Vojislav, utterly defeated the Byzantines. This event marked the end of foreign dominion, was the beginning of the creation of an independent Duklianska state.
After the death of Stefan Vojislav, the power was inherited by his son Michael, who managed to attach to their state a large territory that belonged to Serbia before that. He was the first Montenegrin rulers received the title of king, bestowed on him in 1077 Pope Gregory VII.
Extant Chronicles records it is known that the newly formed Principality was divided into separate areas, at the head of each of which was delivered by elder, called a Zupan. In a time when the state government had carried king Constantine Bodean (1081-1099), it reached the highest peak and covered almost the entire territory of Serbia, including Bosnia, Raska and Zahumlje. However, later the country was plunged into an endless series of civil wars, unleashed by the local Dukes, and lost their former power.
Starting from the XI century, everyday life begins to enter and is gradually taking root in the new name Duklianska States – Zeta. According to linguists, it comes from the ancient word “Reaper” and reflects the basic direction of the economic activities of its inhabitants.
At the turn of XI and XII centuries, the history of Montenegro is again entering a period of political and economic decline that lasts throughout the following centuries. By this time the once powerful Zeta weakened so much that disintegrated into separate principalities (zhupy) came under the control of Raska, shortly before this were only the Serbian region, part of a former state.
These events are closely connected with the history of Kotor (Montenegro) – a city located on the Adriatic sea, and is today a major administrative and tourist centre. In 1186, after many days of siege, he was captured by the troops of the Serbian Prince Stefan Nemanja and attached to Raschke. To our days the chronicle told the story of his heroic defenders who died, but not wishing to lay down their arms before the superior forces of the enemy.
In the period of XIII-XIV century Kotor was the largest city on the coast of the Adriatic, of which economic prosperity was built on trade with areas located in the Central areas of Serbia. Then onnew level history of Budva (Montenegro) – another large modern resort on the Adriatic, founded in the ninth century and mentioned in records of Emperor Constantine Bagrjanorodnogo. Along with two other cities-Ulcinj and Bar - he became a leading center of shipbuilding and navigation of the era.
In its own statutes-statutes that determined the order of their life, these cities had the rights of self-government, and all matters provided assemblies – kind of the parliaments, composed of representatives of the different estates.
In 1371 Serbo-Greek Kingdom, created once by Prince Stefan Neminem, and keep Zeta under control, suddenly collapsed, causing the state that existed on the territory of Montenegro for a while, got freedom. However, in the late 80-ies of the city, located on the Adriatic coast, was subjected to the Turkish invasion, and after an unsuccessful battle in June of 1389 on the Kosovo field, the most internal regions of Zeta was ruled by the Ottoman Empire.
At the beginning of the next century the history of Montenegro took on an even more dramatic character. To the Turkish conquerors added the Venetians, seized part of its Maritime territories, had hitherto remained free. Over time, Venice pushed the Ottoman rulers from their conquered lands, in 1439, almost all of Zeta was declared its protectorate controlled by the feudal lords of the kind of Crnojević. In this period the state was renamed and received its current name Montenegro.
However, the Ottoman Empire has not abandoned its aggressive intentions and soon launched a new attempt to advance. As a result, the history of Serbia and Montenegro during the long years went by, they said from Istanbul. In 1499 the Turks conquered almost the whole of Montenegrin territory, with the exception of a few cities located on the coast of Kotor Bay.
Once under the rule of the Turkish Sultan, Montenegro was transformed into an independent administrative unit named the Sanjak. Management of it was entrusted to the son of the former Duke Ivan Chernoevich, converted to Islam and took the name of Skender-beg.
All residents of the new government taxed – filaria, the payment of which is a heavy burden for the impoverished during the war of the Montenegrins. However, historians suggest that the Ottoman rule is associated, mainly, the history of the cities of Montenegro, because in remote rural areas and the more mountainous areas of the Turks.
The Late XVI and early XVII century marks the beginning of the liberation struggle against Turkish rule. One of the most remarkable episodes was the outbreak in 1604 the uprising under the leadership of Governor Grdina. In a battle near the city of Moscopole, the rebels managed to defeat the troops of the Turkish Governor. This victory gave impetus to the movement, which in subsequent years were covered by all of Montenegro.
The history of the country in the period of XVII-XVIII centuries is a period of acute national liberation struggle, in which temporary victories were followed by defeats, takes the lives of thousands of Montenegrins. In their struggle the people of the country largely relied on the support of Venice, having on the Adriatic coast their possession, and considered the Ottoman Empire as a potential enemy. When in 1645 between Turkey and Venice started the war, the Montenegrins took the opportunity to revolt, tried to go under the Venetian protectorate, however, to realize this plan failed.
At the end of the XVIII century the national liberation struggle of the Montenegrins led by Peter Negosh. He managed to become a spokesman for the national idea and, rallied the support of the disparate clans, to liberate most of the country from the Ottoman tyranny. His successor Danilo Njegos led the thousands of militia who won in 1858 near the city of Rahovec victory over the Turks, resulted in the legal recognition of the sovereignty of the country. The history of Montenegro from that moment began to develop on a completely different basis.
In the state, which was for several centuries a vassal of the Ottoman Empire, was established by the people's Assembly-the Assembly. After the expulsion of the Turks the territory of Montenegro has been enhanced by including taken before the most fertile areas. She was returned out to sea, and the crown of all was the adoption of the first Montenegrin Constitution. But in status it still was the hereditary Principality of the house of Negocia. Finally, the independence of Montenegro was declared at the Congress of Berlin, 1878.
The New century the country began with the Declaration by the Kingdom that followed in 1910. During the First world war, Montenegro sided with the allies and in 1916 was captured by the Austro-Hungarian army. Two years later, the decision of the Grand national Assembly wasthe deposed monarchical dynasty Nagosa, and Montenegro was United with Serbia.
During the Second world war the country was occupied by Italian troops. Since 1945, Montenegro had the status of a Federal Republic, and in 2006 became an independent state.
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