An Integral part of modern society is social conflict in all its diversity. Examples of conflicts occur all around us, ranging from petty quarrels to international antagonisms. The result of one of these antagonisms - Islamic fundamentalism – is seen on the scale of one of the largest of world problems, bordering on the threat of a Third world war. However, research in the field of the specifics of the conflict as a socio-psychological phenomenon showed that this is a rather broad and complex concept, to assess its uniquely destructive point of view.
The Most common in scientific knowledge are considered as two approaches regarding the nature of the conflict (Antsupov A. Ya.). The first defines the conflict as a clash of parties and opinions or forces; second – as the clash of opposing positions, objectives, interests and views of the subjects of interaction. Thus, in the first case are considered the examples of conflicts the broader values that have a place both in animate and inanimate nature. In the second case, there is a limited number of parties to the conflict a group of people. In this case, any conflict involves certain lines of interaction between subjects (or groups of actors), which degenerated into a confrontation.
The founder of the conflict paradigm as a whole in social Sciences is considered by L. Coser. One of the advantages of his theory is the recognition of the fact that there are examples of conflicts positive functional value. In other words, Coser argued that conflict is not always a destructive phenomenon – there are cases where it is necessary to create the internal connections of a particular system or condition of the maintenance of social cohesion.
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The Structure of the conflict form, the participants (opponents, opposing sides) and their actions, subject the conditions/situation of conflict (example – crush on public transport) and the outcome. The subject of conflict, as a rule, closely connected with the needs of the parties, for the satisfaction of which is a struggle. Generally they can be grouped into three large groups: financial, social (status and role) and spiritual. The dissatisfaction of certain significant for the individual (group) needs can be seen as causes of conflict.
According to N. V. Grishina, in the ordinary consciousness of the examples of conflicts include a fairly wide range of phenomena – from armed conflict and confrontation with particular social groups and up to marital discord. It does not matter whether we are talking about the debate in the Parliament or against personal desires. Modern neokazanii you can find a huge number of different classifications, there is no clear differentiation between the concepts of “types” and “kinds” of conflicts. Examples from both groups often used synonymously. Meanwhile, in our opinion, it is expedient to distinguish three main aspects of typology of conflicts:
The First aspect is the most broad in scope. Each type may include several types of conflicts, which, in turn, can proceed in one form or another.
The main types of conflicts include:
Thus, the emphasis in this case on the subjects (participants) of the conflict. In turn, interpersonal, intergroup conflict, and conflict between the individual and the group are examples of social conflicts. The first social conflict, along with intrapersonal and toconflict, allocated in a separate type of German sociologist G. Simmel. Some more recent concepts of intrapersonal conflict is also included in the concept of social, which, however, is a debatable point.
Among the main causes of social conflict, decided to allocate limited resources, differences of people in the axiological context, the differences in life experience and behavior, the limitations of certain features of the human psyche.
Involves subjectively experiencing the misalignment of certain tendencies in the consciousness of the individual (assessments, attitudes, interests, etc.), interacting with each other in the development process (Mitina L. M., kuzmenkova O. V.). In other words, we are talking about the clash of certain motivational formations that can't be satisfied (realized) simultaneously. For example, a person may not love your job, but afraid to leave because of the prospect of staying unemployed. The child may be tempted to skip this lesson and at the same time afraid of being punished for it, etc.
In turn, this type of conflict can be of the following types (Antsupov A. Ya, Shipilov A. I.):
Thus, this classification distinguishes three main components of personality structure, come into confrontation with each other: “I want" (want), ‘I" (necessary) and ‘I am" (can). If we compare this concept with the known structure of personality developed by Sigmund Freud in the framework of psychoanalysis, we can observe the conflict of ID (I want), Ego (can) and Super-Ego (the need). Also in this case, it is advisable to remember transactional analysis by Eric Berne, and the allocated three positions of the person: Child (want), Adult (can), the Parent (it should).
This type takes place in case of disagreements and confrontations between individuals. Among the features it can be noted that it proceeds on the principle of “here and now”, may have both objective and subjective reasons, and, as a rule, is characterized by high emotionality involved. Interpersonal style can also be divided into certain types of conflicts.
For Example, depending on the nature of the relationship of subordination between the participants, interpersonal conflicts can be divided into conflicts “vertical”, “horizontally” and “diagonal". In the first case we are dealing with subordinate relationships, e.g., supervisor-employee, teacher-student. The second case takes place when the parties to the conflict take an equal position and not subordinate to each other – colleagues, spouses, random people in queues, etc Conflicts on the diagonal may occur between opponents that are in indirect obedience – between the head of service and duty on the part of, between senior and Junior etc. (when the participants are at different level positions, but in subordinate relations to each other are not).
Also, interpersonal conflicts may include species such as (marital, child-parent, conflict between siblings), the household, the conflict in the organization (an example of an organizational conflict we see whenever there is a collision in a particular production structure between its constituent entities under the business cooperation) etc.
To intergroup conflicts usually referred to clashes between individual members of different social groups (large, small and medium), as well as between these groups as a whole. In this case also it is possible to allocate such, as the conflict in the organization (examples: between the employees and the management, administration and trade Union, students and teachers, etc.), appliances (if the conflict involves several representatives of two groups – for example, in communal apartments, in a queue, public transport, etc.).
You can Also highlight such examples of social conflicts on the intergroup level, as inter-ethnic, intercultural and religious. Each of these types covers a wide strata of the population and is characterized by a significant length of time. In addition, the selected species may have overlapping character. A separate category are of international conflicts (examples of which we constantly see in the news), including between individual States and their coalitions.
This type usually occurs in the case when a single individual in the group refuses to act like other participants, thus demonstrating non-conformist behavior. Either he commits a certain act, which in this group is considered unacceptable that triggers the conflict. As an example, can be a film by Rolan Bykov “Stuffed” (1983), in which the main character, Lena Bessoleva is in conflict with the class. As a shining example of non-conformist behavior in the group, provoking conflict is the tragic fate of the Italian philosopher Giordano Bruno.
This category implies the presence of a certain specificity of action, shaping the conflict. Among the major forms in which it is possible for the flow of conflict can be distinguished (Samson N. V.) the debate (controversy), complaint, condemnation, boycott, strike, sabotage, strike, abuse (swearing), fight, threat, hostility, harassment, coercion, assault, war (political conflict). The examples of debate and controversy can also be found in the scientific community that proves once again the possibility of a constructive nature of the conflict.
For all types of conflict we can consider three main theoretical approaches:
From the point of view of this approach the hostility of certain individuals or groups is reflected primarily by its internal problems. So, for example, with the position of Freud, autographa hostility is an inevitable condition of any intergroup interaction, having a universal character. The main function of thishostility – means of maintaining internal stability and cohesion of the group. The separate place in this case is a political conflict. Examples can be found in the history of the formation of fascist movements in Germany and Italy (the idea of racial superiority), and in the history of the ‘enemies of the people” during the period of Stalinist repression. Freud linked the mechanism of formation autography of hostility towards “stranger” with an Oedipus complex, instinct of aggression, and with emotional identification with the leader of the group, “father”, etc. From the point of view of morality, these facts cannot be considered as a constructive conflict. Examples of racial discrimination and widespread terror, however, clearly demonstrate the possibility of rallying the members of one group in the process of confrontation with others.
In the theoretical concept of aggression, American psychologist Leonard Berkowitz as one of the key factors in intergroup conflicts, acts relative deprivation. That is, one group estimates its position in society as more disadvantaged compared to the situation of other groups. The deprivation is relative, as the disadvantaged position in reality may not be true.
This approach focuses on external factors, the situation causing the occurrence and the specifics of the conflict. For example, in studies of Turkish psychologist Muzaffer Sheriff it was found that the hostility of one group against another is significantly reduced if instead of competitive conditions they are the conditions of cooperation (the need for the implementation of joint activities, in which the result depends on the common efforts of all participants). Thus, the Sheriff comes to the conclusion that the factors of the situation in which the group interacts, are crucial in determining the cooperative or competitive nature of intergroup interaction.
In this case, the emphasis is on the dominant role of cognitive (mental) attitudes of the parties to the conflict relative to each other. Thus, in a situation of intergroup conflict, the hostility of one group towards another are not necessarily due to an objective conflict of interest (which was argued in the realist theory of conflict in the situational approach). Accordingly, it is not the cooperative/competitive nature of the situation becomes a decisive factor in interpersonal and intergroup interaction, and occur in the process he set as a group. By themselves, the overall goals are to resolve conflicts between opponents – it depends on the formation of social attitudes, unifying the group and contributes to overcoming their confrontation.
Tajfel and Turner developed the theory of social identity, according to which conflicts between groups are not a necessary consequence of social injustice (in contrast to the motivational approach). Faced with this injustice, individuals have the ability to choose certain ways to overcome it.
Regardless of whether international conflicts, the examples that most clearly demonstrate the destructive nature of the conflict behavior of the parties; or it is a minor quarrel between colleagues is extremely important is to the optimal exit path. The ability of the opposing parties finds a compromise in a difficult dispute, to restrain their own destructive behavior, to see possible prospects for further cooperation with these opponents – all of these factors are the key to a possible favorable outcome. However, as important as was the total role of public policy, economic, cultural and legal systems in society, the origins of this trend are found in some specific individuals. Just as the river starts small streams.
We are Talking about conflictological culture of the personality. The relevant notion includes the ability and desire of the individual to the prevention and resolution of social conflicts (Samson, N. V.). In this case, it is advisable to recall the concept of “constructive conflict”. Examples of contemporary conflicts (given their keen and widespread) demonstrate, rather, the lack of any constructive conflict interaction. In this regard, the concept of conflictological culture of the personality must be regarded not only as one of the conditions of the optimal resolution of disputes in society, but also as the most important factor of socialization of the personality of every modern individual.
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