Thyroid hormones are produced in the thyroid gland (now the thyroid gland). Thyroxine and triiodothyronine are the two main hormone that body, which consists of an atom of iodine. These hormones are secreted by the cells of the follicular epithelium.
Thyroxine and triiodothyronine are synthesized based on tyrosine (alpha-amino acid) and essential for the normal development of the organism.
Violation of secretion of thyroid hormones in the human body can lead to delayed mental and physical development.
The Main protein now the thyroid gland is thyroglobulin. It serves as a matrix for the formation of hormones produced by the gland. Thyroxine and triiodothyronine are synthesized based on the protein thyroglobulin. This protein contains in its structure more than 5 thousand amino acid residues and only 18 of them yodorovna. Thyroxine is synthesized with the participation of only 2 to 4 amino acid residues. In addition to thyroglobulin, to produce hormones now the thyroid gland participates and cholesterol. Thus, thyroxine and triiodothyronine are synthesized on the basis of cholesterol and steroid hormones. Thyroid hormone T4 is 10 times more than T3.
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Triiodothyronine hormone (T3) is formed by connecting molecules of di - and monoiodotyrosine, which are part of the protein thyroglobulin.
Now the thyroid gland Hormones bind to plasma proteins and in this form are delivered to tissues and organs. There are three main blood protein that can bind the hormone T3 and T4
The level of thyroxine and triiodothyronine affect the secretory activity now the thyroid gland and the binding capacity of blood serum.
Control of the synthesis of T3 and T4 is pituitary hormone TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone). In turn, the synthesis of TSH is under the influence of the hormone hypothalamus TRH (thyrotropin releasing hormone).
The Percentage of fT3 is only 0.25% of the total content of T3 in the blood. As we have seen, T3 in the blood is much smaller than T4, but in spite of this, the free form is just two times less than the free form of T4.
It is a free form of hormones now the thyroid gland determines their biological activity. Triiodothyronine (hormone) is much more active than thyroxine. That is why free level it describes the overall metabolic effect of thyroid hormones.
T4 is biologically inactive. But if necessary it may be under the influence of the enzyme selenium-dependent monodeiodination be converted into the more active T3.
Hormone thyroxine function in the body performs such as important as triiodothyronine. Namely, T4 is responsible for the production in the liver of vitamin A, stimulates protein metabolic processes, affect lipid (fat) metabolism, regulates the level of triglycerides and bad cholesterol in the blood, affects the proper formation of bone tissue, especially in children.
To produce a study of the level of hormones now the thyroid gland, it is enough to take on the analysis blood from a vein. This can be done in the treatment room.
The study was undertaken the most reliable and its results are not affected by external factors, one month before delivery of blood it is necessary to exclude reception of all hormones. Of course, this must be agreed with your doctor. 3-5 days before delivery it is recommended that medicines containing iodine.
Immediately before blood sampling, the patient should not undergo any x-ray examination. On the eve of blood donation is not recommended high physical activity and stressful situations (sporting events, exams, etc.). Before you go to the office and take the test, the patient is advised to sit and relax for 15-30 minutes.
We figured out what role to play in the body thyroxine and triiodothyronine, synthesized on the basis of what components, what substances are responsible for their binding in blood serum, how to get tested for these hormones. Now consider their normal value and under what conditions they can increase or decrease. The norms of these hormones are given in the table below:
|Hormone||Minimum and maximum values||Units izmereniya|
|At-TG (antibodies to thyroglobulin)||0-18,0||U/ml|
|Antibodies to thyroid peroxidase||<5,6||U/ml|
Free Triiodothyronine may increase in the following conditions:
The Decrease in fT3 in the blood can occur in the following situations:
In addition, possible seasonal fluctuations fT3. The maximum is in the time period from September to February and a minimum in summer months.
Hypothyroidism is the insufficient synthesis of hormones now the thyroid gland. In this scenario, you may experience the following symptoms:
Hyperthyroidism is an excess of hormone synthesis now the thyroid gland. You experience the following symptoms:
The Thyroid gland and its hormones perform important functions for the body, it is therefore necessary to monitor the status of this body. This is done on an annual prophylactic examinations. If necessary, the doctor will give direction to the ultrasound and blood hormones now the thyroid gland.
To prevent diseases now the thyroid gland and hormonal deficiency of this body should include in your diet foods high in iodine content. These include virtually all seafood (tuna, flounder, salmon, shrimp, sea cabbage), fruit (persimmons, bananas, oranges), vegetables (onion, garlic, sorrel, eggplant). Following the simple guidelines, it is possible to preserve the health of the thyroid gland and the whole body.
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