The Strength and durability of any structure depends on the quality of the Foundation. As in any business to achieve success, you cannot ignore the preparatory stage. The correctness of calculations not only saves time, nerves and resources. How to calculate the volume of concrete to fill the Foundation properly and what details must be considered, not to be trapped, will be discussed in this article.
It is Necessary to say a few words about the types of foundations and buildings, as this is directly dependent calculations. If we are talking about Foundation, then it is its functionality. Such structures are load-bearing or a combination. Bookmark level - deep or shallow. In addition, it is important to consider the region, soil type and depth to groundwater. Before approaching the question of how to calculate the volume of concrete, we consider the design of the building, the materials from which it will subsequently be built, the layout and number of storeys. There are 3 basic types of Foundation: strip, slab and column.
Ribbon Foundation – it is a continuous solid band under bearing walls. This type is used to ensure that the weight is evenly distributed over the entire area of the base. Consequently, the skew of the building due to swelling soils is not expected. However, it should be understood that zarovny, peat or marshy soil is not suitable for this reason. In these cases the piles. Therefore, the definition of soil and its characteristics – an important task, and solve it, can the experts. In normal soil the strip Foundation is equally well suited for the construction of private houses, and monolithic buildings.
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The Next type of the concrete base-slab. Throughout the area of the future building is filled with one solid monolithic slab. This Foundation has proven itself in problematic soils. It not only evenly distribute the load during freezing of the soil, but even with the swelling base will rise to then again return to its original position under its own weight. Additional benefits-durability and reliability.
Pier Foundation – a number of supports that are usually located at the corners and the places where it will be distributed to the highest stress. The main disadvantage – to equip the basement will not work. It is used for buildings and structures with a low weight.
When deciding "how many cubic meters of concrete on the Foundation of different types may need to" you also need to consider the climatic conditions of the locality in which the construction will be made.
The Freezing of the soil in different regions of Russia and CIS countries has its own individual characteristics. For the most accurate calculations it is best to use the data about the depth of soil freezing and to lay the Foundation below. In Vorkuta, Surgut, where winters are more severe, the ground is frozen is not less than 250 cm, and in Moscow, this value will be equal to only 140 see In Minsk, Kiev and Rostov, and even fewer – the average is 90-100 cm, But here the important role is also played by the soil type. For example, take rock half rock or soil. To lay the Foundation for a 2-storey house in this case can, in principle, at any distance. Depth to groundwater in the period of freezing of land is also role to play. But if you are dealing with clay or loam, the deeper data below the estimated freezing of the soil in this region is not recommended – if the work is carried out in, say, Minsk or Kiev, then to dig the trench for the Foundation should be at least 100 cm And so on by analogy. When considering the question of how to calculate the required volume of concrete, it is useful to dwell on such an important moment, as the grade of concrete.
The choice of a particular grade of concrete is influenced by the characteristics of durability. During the preparatory work (e.g., rough screed floors) use grade 100 or 150. For small commercial buildings with strip Foundation and concrete walkways will fit 200 and 250 mark. 300 and 350 – for the foundations of houses. 400 and 500 apply when there is a need for special strength. How to calculate the volume of concrete in relation to the belt, slab and column types of Foundation? This will be the conversation below.
How to calculate concrete volume with a minimum error? In fact, the problem of special complexity does not represent. For the calculation of the formula requires data on the width of the base (n), the height of the Foundation (k), the length along the outside of the Foundation (a) and the length of the inner side (b). Inserting values into a formula to get the right concrete volume (S):
S = 2nk × (a + b).
How to calculate the volumefor the Foundation laying of this type? Here, again, will help simple calculations, borrowed from the school course in geometry. To get the volume, multiply the between the values of different parties – so the required area value, which, in turn, is multiplied by the height of the future Foundation. All: now known the required volume of concrete.
Of course, you Can use a conventional monolithic plate, but in practice this happens rarely due to the high cost of the latter. Although slab Foundation is a godsend in terms of unstable soil, and at the close groundwater table is also proved excellent. And durability above all praise.
The Most economical option for buildings with light weight and at the same time, unacceptable for all those who would like to have a basement. How to calculate the volume of concrete for the Foundation? It is not difficult. Again geometry to help us. For accurately calculating the amount of concrete required to know the number of poles in the base of the building and the consumption of concrete per unit. The calculations are performed using a formula reflecting the length of one support (g) and section (k):
V = (3,14 × k2 / 4) x g.
Suppose we need to calculate the amount of concrete on a pier Foundation with the parameters of the pile g=1,5, k=0,28 and the number of posts 15 pieces. The decision will look as follows:
(3,14 × 0,28 × 2 / 4) x 1.5 = 0.09 cubic meter of concrete (flow rate per pile).
To calculate total weight, multiply the result by the number of piles in the Foundation:
0,09 x 15 = 1.35 cubic meter.
To ease calculations, you can use the program-calculator of foundations, the benefit of a lot of them on various sites. There is already set to the recommended settings – takes into account not only the wood material from which to fabricate the formwork, but the thickness of the Board. Also there it is possible to make such parameters: thickness, depth and height of the Foundation above the ground, its perimeter (the sum of the lengths of all walls).
In order to calculate the necessary amount of concrete with the help of online programs do not have to know the formula for the volume. The calculator will run the necessary operations. Even the quantity of cement can be calculated without difficulty, but it will help is another online calculator.
To Arrange a self-test by reading the information from the tables of the consumption of cement of various grades for the manufacture of concrete of the desired strength. To prepare the grade of concrete M400 with cement grade 500, it will require 440 kg / m3. It is clear that any calculations can be error. Usually it is from 3 to 10 percent. Factors can be several. This and inaccuracies during excavation works, and unloading of concrete (could be loss), and shrinkage of the soil. In any case, these, at first glance, little things can easily lead to negative consequences. Not enough concrete and then it's all hands on deck, because you can't break the solidity. To take missing material, given the transport costs, will cost 2.5 times more expensive.
So it is better to calculate everything in advance and purchase a little more material than necessary. You already know how to calculate how much you will need concrete Foundation. With a calculator to make necessary computations will not be difficult to work with it comfortably, but even in the case of such assistant remember: the calculations and preparatory work in such an important matter as the construction, do not tolerate the hustle and bustle.
Consult a qualified professional will help to save resources and time. However, don't fully trust the project documentation. Practice shows that the settlement amounts in most cases incorrect. Theory often diverges from practice. So armed with writing utensils, notebook and tape measure, you can avoid many unpleasant surprises. Especially if you order 10 percent more than we did in the calculations.
There is one caveat when calculating the required amount of concrete. Always work with large and proven organizations. Unfortunately, releasing their products, some not very clean manufacturers issued fewer building materials. If the time to take care of convenient access roads and several places of loading – the cooperation with factories significantly reduce losses. If thoughtfully and carefully work out all the details, the question of how to calculate the volume of concrete will not cause any problems.
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