The works of A. S. Pushkin in the last years of his life is extremely diverse: art and historical prose, poetry on various subjects. Among the latest of his works include the poem “I am a monument erected without hands”.
A Little controversial theory about the history of the poem “I have erected a monument”.
Pushkin wrote it in response to the poem ‘Alexander Two’ written at the Lyceum years, his friend Delwig. A history of creation was called the historian of literature, Pushkin scholar Vladislav Khodasevich.
Other literary scholars distinguish several theories involving the origins of writing the poem “I am a monument erected without hands”.
Pushkin imitated the previously existing writings of writers: G. Derzhavin, A. Vostokov, M. Lomonosov, V. Kapnist.
The Second theory originates in Ancient Rome and touches on the career of Horace, author of odes Exegi monumentum.
The Poem was perceived by contemporaries and descendants is ambiguous.
Faith in the imminent recognition of his efforts, awareness of the impending love and acceptance from the descendants of – the topics covered in the poem, was perceived by contemporaries of the poet cold. As self-praise of personal literary talents were not respected. And this, in their opinion, and engaged in the work of Pushkin.
“I am a monument erected without hands" fans of the author was perceived as a hymn of poetry and the hope of the triumph of the spiritual over the physical.
A draft of the work was discovered in a pile of papers after the poet's death. Vasily Zhukovsky helped the poem to appear in the posthumous collected works of the playwright (1841).
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Pushkin Wrote “I am a monument erected without hands" just five months before the fatal duel that caused his death: the poem is dated August 21, 1836, the Work was fateful prediction of approaching death.
On new year's ball Alexander personally read his "Monument".
Pushkin poem, interpreting the fate of the poet in the prism of human history, written in the difficult years of criticism against him, the tsarist censorship had become bitter and was banned for printing the majority of the works, secular society discussed the gossip about him and his wife, and family life is cracking. Maybe it is this atmosphere influenced deep look, which allowed to objectively assess personal contributions of the playwright in the literature.
The people close to Alexander, it was believed that the piece is filled with notes of self-irony. They called «Monument" the epigram, the object of which was Pushkin.
Confirmation of this theory is the focus of the poem: addressed to the poet, whose work is not respected among the tribesmen, although it was intended to arouse in them admiration.
Memoirist Pyotr Vyazemsky adhered to the theory about the "irony" poem “I have erected a monument». Pushkin and Vyazemsky were friends, so the literary critic, insisted on a wrong reading of the works of fans. He said that it is not about the spiritual and literary heritage, and the recognition by the society itself. It is known that contemporaries, in the circles which spun the poet, openly disliked him as a person. But recognized the talent that had Pushkin.
“I am a monument erected without hands" also had ‘mystical’ side.
Supporters of the "mystical" version was of the opinion that the poem is a prediction of the impending death of the poet, which he knew in advance. Starting from this position and rejecting the version of Vyazemsky about the irony of the work, we can say that "the Monument" became the spiritual legacy of Pushkin.
Prophetic vision has affected not only the life of the poet, but his work. Novelist and playwright knew that future generations would be not only to praise and honor him, but will be considered worthy of imitation.
There is a legend that long before the tragic outcome of their way of life Alexander knew which specific day and what time of day it will die. It says that death in the hands of the famous blond he predicted a fortune-teller.
Anticipating the approaching death and wanting to take stock of his life Pushkin turned to the most accessible source for yourself - Peru – and wrote "the Monument".
The Lyric hero can be called the Alexander. The story is the fate of the author, considered in the context of human history, as well as the subsequent contribution to the literature.
The Poet asks, what place is given him in this world, what kind of relationship he formed with the community and readers. He hopedthat a life spent in creative pursuits and impulses, was not in vain and will benefit posterity. He hopes that after death he will be remembered: “No, I won't die”.
Also in the poem raised the issue of the poet and of poetry, of poetic fame and poetic heritage. Pushkin writes that the poet can overcome death thanks to the creative heritage and recognition of descendants.
Each line in the "Monument" are imbued with pride in the fact that the poetry of the poet was free and moral: “I Praised freedom And mercy for the fallen”.
A Poem with an epigraph Exegi monumentum (TRANS. “I erected a monument”), on the one hand, is filled with bright and joyful colours, symbolizing the eternal life of art, but, on the other hand, it is a bit gloomy and sad, because it is the Swan song of the poet, summing up the creative activities, which amounted to Pushkin himself.
A Poem to the rhythm of sound can be called slow, this slow pace gives it a majestic rhythm. This effect is achieved thanks to a single size of the verse (pentameter with hareem), cross-rhyme, ideal for quatrains (quatrains) with alternating feminine and masculine rhymes.
Many art funds also contributed to the creation of conducive atmosphere in the work. Among them are: the anaphora (acinonychinae rows), invert (reverse the order of words) series of homogeneous terms.
The Majestic tone of a work made by epithets: “miraculous monument" metaphors: “soul my ashes will outlive and corruption run”, picture: “Muse… praise and slander acceptable indifference And does not challenge a fool”, metonymy: “the hearing will take me across the great of Russia». To the lexical means can be attributed to the frequent use of slavonicisms (Docol the poet, the head raised).
On the Basis of artistic, lexical richness of the poem, it is logical to conclude that, as predicted, Alexander, he has created for the descendants of their creativity «monument to the miraculous”. Pushkin lived, lives and will live on through written works.
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