Short-term memory


2018-04-01 16:25:08




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Short-term memory provides retention and further reproduction of intelligence information. The presence of humankind is proved by a German scientist Herman Ebbinghaus in 1885. He conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of random letters, numbers and characters after one reading, and proved that such information can be accurately reproduced in a limited quantity. Working memory takes an average of 5-10 units. What RAM is the right person?

The Main property of such a memory – brevity, because the information is stored for a few minutes and sometimes even seconds. The mechanism of short-term memory is quite complex, and a unified theory about this does not exist yet. What information you would want to learn any memorization begins with a complicated electrochemical processes in the brain, because short-term memory is based on the impulsive activity of neurons and circulation of excitation on the reserved chains of neurons.

A Very important role to determine the mechanisms of working memory played the application of strong electric influence on the human brain. The results of the study showed that after exposure to electrical shock occurs retrograde amnesia, which is manifested in the fact that the person remembers nothing about the events that preceded such effects on the brain. The same amnesia occurs as a result of severe shaking, injury and anesthesia. The duration of retrograde amnesia can tell us about the time of memory consolidation, that is, how much you need to short-term memory transferred to long-term. Typically, memory consolidation begins after 5-10 minutes.


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The Study of the development of the state of retrograde amnesia in the man gave an opportunity for scientists to formulate a hypothesis about the mechanism of working memory. We are talking about the hypothesis of reverberation of excitation in the closed neural chains. Found that in closed chains of neural circulation (also known as reverb) lasts a couple of minutes, storing the data in the form of a specific sequence of pulses. The latter are transmitted from one neuron to another. There is an opinion that during the movement the effect of any stimulus keeps the neural trace.

The Above hypothesis is directly related to everyday experience and suggests that learning needs constant practice – multiple holding of the material being studied through consciousness. Thus short-term memory becomes long-term.

Short-term memory is a memory that is characterized by a very short time data storage. Entered information is lost due to the influence of the time factor or because of the new arrivals next piece of information. In addition, short-term memory has a relatively small number of copied elements. The resulting information goes into long term memory from short-term or sensory memory only when the individual pays attention to her and reiterates her. Through consolidation of information units that fall into short-term memory, the total number of elements may increase. Storing the data within such a memory is performed in modal form.

In recent years, scientists working not only on the explanation of the phenomenon of short-term memory and its mechanisms, but also on the methods of testing and training. Today, there are numerous special tests and tasks that will help you to determine what your short-term memory and evaluate it on different parameters.

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