Endemic goiter is an enlargement of the thyroid gland caused by iodine deficiency in the body. A healthy volume of the breast, usually in women did not exceed 20 cm3, and for men - 25 cm3. In the presence of a goiter, he is more given size. According to statistics, which was recently given by the world health organization, more than seven hundred million people who live in iodine-deficient territories, suffer from endemic goiter (ICD-10 code - E01.0).
They observed different degrees of functional insufficiency of the gland. Forty two million are diagnosed acquired form of mental retardation. The most unfavourable territories from the point of view of the content of iodine in the environment in our country is the Republic of Karelia, the Volga region, the Caucasus and the valleys of the Siberian rivers.
Endemic goiter can be of different types, for example:
In Addition to the above forms are distinguished also:
Directly on its localization goiter is unilateral or bilateral. Next, find out what are the main causes of this pathology, and consider the extent of the disease.
Often singled out:
To determine the exact size of the thyroid gland patient is prescribed ultrasound, which also brings out the form of a goiter.
As mentioned above, the cause of endemic goiter is the iodine deficiency in the human body. Iodine deficiency is, for example, acute. In such case, the body will collect all of its compensatory abilities and as soon as I resume the iodine, the person will be returned to the normal operation of his thyroid, due to which any damage to the other organs does not occur.
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Against the background of the development of chronic insufficiency such an important element like iodine, the situation is much more complicated. As a response to decreased intake of iodine, as a rule, there is an increase of the thyroid cells, which synthesize hormones. Thanks to the growth of these cells glands and the strengthening of their work for a short time to be stabilized relative to a normal quantity of hormones. But after some time will be inevitable in the process of fibrosis, and will begin to form knots. Pathogenesis of endemic goiter don't know everything.
On the background of prolonged iodine deficiency alone hypertrophy of the thyroid cells is not enough. Not only can they increase in size, but intensely divided. As a result, fibrosarcomas cells in the body is a lot, and this, in turn, means that there are prerequisites for further development of diffuse-nodular goiter.
The Causes of endemic goitre are that the thyroid gland against the background of an increasing shortage of iodine passes through several stages of changing its structure. First becomes euthyroid diffuse goiter, multinodular euthyroid then, but in the end - multinodular toxic.
Endemic goiter occurs due to lack of iodine.
The Most common causes of iodine deficiency are the following factors:
Speaking about the causes that provoke the development of endemic goiter, should consider in more detail the lack of this element in everyday food. The majority of inhabitants of our country in the diet there are almost no fresh seafood with the fish. In additionanyone thinking about using iodized salt for cooking.
Of Course, accept only iodized salt will not fill the full extent of the iodine deficiency. This is due to the fact that iodine is a very volatile substance which quickly disappears from the structure of salt crystals as a result of the receipt by him of air. In this connection, you need to keep salt in salt shakers, and glass or metal tins that close tightly with a lid.
Eating a significant amount of cauliflower, and in addition, beans and turnips threatens the development of iodine deficiency. This is because these products contain too much chromogenic substances that provoke an excessive growth of tissue of the thyroid gland.
Thus, iodine deficiency is primarily caused due to the following factors:
Now consider how evident the presence in patients of endemic goiter of the thyroid gland.
Symptoms of goiter in the first place depend on the functions of the thyroid gland. Very often the patient may complain of the following feelings:
These symptoms can occur even at an early stage of the disease. With subsequent growth of the thyroid gland, patients may experience the following symptoms:
Interestingly, the diffuse type of goitre is the most common form. Women they are sick four times more often compared to men. This is primarily due to increased demand of women in the hormones of this gland during puberty and pregnancy.
It Should be borne in mind that doses of iodine, as recommended, shall be as follows:
About two hundred million people on the planet suffer from this pathology. It is called one of the most common disasters people. Ninety percent of all cases of the appearance of goiter caused by iodine deficiency. Six percent increased the incidence of goiter among children over the past ten years. Today, this frequency is approximately twenty-five percent of all children's endocrine diseases.
The Pathogenesis of endemic goitre everyone should know.
The Disease can result in different complications. To them, as a rule, include:
To prevent complications of endemic goitre, it is necessary to undergo diagnosis.
Instrumental methods of diagnosis of goiter is ultrasound. Thanks to this study establish the form of the disease which may be diffuse or nodular.
In the case of nodes can assign sonoelastography - study, which allows to determine the density with elasticity nodules. This gives you the opportunity to find out what the nature of the pathology: benign or malignant. With the same purpose to further carry out a biopsy of the thyroid gland. In addition to confirm the diagnosis, check the level of hormones such as TSH and T4. Patients with this type of the disease usually greatly upset the balance of thyroid hormone. In turn, the rate of discharge of iodine in urine was low. But the initial step in the survey is primarily palpation. This method allows you to do the following:
In Addition topalpation is very informative, however, and available method is, as already mentioned, ultrasound examination, which gives the following information:
What is the treatment of endemic goiter?
In the case of minor breast augmentation is often just a few courses of treatment of potassium iodide, and in addition, the diet with foods that are rich in iodine. The treatment of goiter complicated by hypothyroidism in the first place involves conducting hormone replacement therapy.
The Treatment of goiter, which is the anchor form at a late stage, usually requires surgical intervention.
At the postoperative stage patients undergo hormone replacement treatment. Folk remedies recommended the powder of the seaweed. He takes a teaspoon at night and washed down with water. Therapy is from twenty to thirty days.
Prevention of endemic goitre is no less important.
It is recommended that People following the diet for the prevention of endemic goitre:
Prevention of endemic goiter divided into mass, group and individual type:
How to prevent endemic goiter in children? Babies who are on mixed feeding, daily need 90 micrograms of iodine. Pregnant women, children and teenagers need up to 200 micrograms per day. In addition to medication important diet, which should be based on a sufficient iodine content in food products.
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