Characteristics of sodium. The formula of sodium


2019-02-07 11:00:44




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Sodium — one of the alkali metals. Table of chemical elements shows it as the atom, relating to the third period and the first group.

Physical properties

This section will consider the characteristics of sodium from the point of view of physics. Let's start with the fact that in its pure form is a solid silver color with a metallic luster and low hardness. Sodium is so soft that it can be easily cut with a knife. The melting point of the substance is quite low and is seventy-nine degrees Celsius. The atomic weight of sodium is too small, we'll talk about it later. The density of this metal is equal to 0,97 g/cm3.technical sodium

Chemical characterization sodium

This item has a very high activity — it can rapidly and violently react with many other substances. Also, the table of chemical elements allows to determine such value as molar mass — for sodium it is twenty-three. One mole is a quantity of a substance is 6.02 x 10 to the 23 atoms (molecules if the substance is difficult). Knowing the molar mass of an element, you can determine how much it will weigh a specific number of mole of vesetska. For example, two mol of sodium weighs forty six grams. As mentioned above, the metal — one of the most chemically active, it relates to alkaline, accordingly, its oxide can form an alkali (strong base).table of chemical elements

How oxides

All substances in this group, including in the case of sodium, you can get by burning the original. Thus, there is a reaction of the metal with oxygen, which leads to the formation of oxide. For example, if you burn four moles of sodium will spend one mole of oxygen and two moles of the oxide of this metal. The formula of sodium oxide — Na2O. the equation for the reaction is: 4Na + O2 = 2Na2O. If we add to the substance water formed lye-NaOH.


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Taking one mole of oxide and water, get two moles of the base. Here's the equation of this reaction: Na2O + H2O = 2NaOH. The resulting substance is also called sodium hydroxide. This is due to its strong alkaline properties and high chemical activety. As strong acid, sodium hydroxide reacts with the low activity salts of metals, organic compounds, etc. During the interaction with salts reaction occurs exchange — formed a new salt and new ground. A solution of sodium hydroxide can easily destroy fabric, paper, leather, nails, so it requires the observance of safety rules while working with him. Applies sodium hydroxide in the chemical industry as a catalyst, and in households as a means to eliminate the problem of clogged pipes.

Reactions with Halogens

sodium fluoride

It is a simple substance composed of chemical elements, which belong to the seventh group of the periodic system. Their list includes fluorine, iodine, chlorine, bromine. Sodium is capable of reacting with all of them, forming such compounds as chloride/bromide/iodide/sodium fluoride. For the reaction need to take two mol considered metal, add one mole of fluoride. The result is sodium fluoride in the amount of two moths. This process can be written as the equation: Na + F2 = 2NaF. Foresti sodium, which we got used in the production of toothpastes against caries, as well as detergents for various surfaces. This way when you add chlorine you get sodium chloride (table salt), sodium iodide that is used in the manufacture of metal halide lamps, sodium bromide, used as a medicine for nervousness, insomnia, hysteria and other disorders of the nervous system.

Other simple substances

It is Also possible reaction of sodium with phosphorus, sulphur (sulfur), carbon fiber (carbon). Such chemical interactions can only be done in case of creation of special conditions in the form of high temperature. Thus, there is the reaction of accession. With its help it is possible to obtain substances such as sodium phosphide, sodium sulfide, sodium carbide.

As example is the joining of atoms of the metal to atoms of phosphorus. If you take three mol of the considered metal and one mole of the second component, then heat them, you get one mole of sodium phosphide. This reaction can be written as the following equation: 3Na + P = Na3P. in addition, sodium can react with nitrogen and hydrogen. In the first case, a nitride of this metal, the second — a hydride. As examples of such equations chemical reaction: 6Na + N2 = 2Na3N; 2Na + H2 = 2NaH. For the first interaction the electrical discharge, the second — high temperature.sodium hydroxide

Reaction with acids

In simple substances chemical characterization sodium does not end there. This metal also reacts with all acids. As a result of such chemical reactions formed sodium salt and hydrogen. For example, consider the reaction of metal with hydrochloric acid formed table salt and hydrogen,which evaporates. To Express this reaction by using the reaction equations: Na + HCl = NaCl + H2. Similar kind of chemical reaction is called substitution reaction. Through its implementation it is also possible to obtain salts such as phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, sulfate, sulfite, carbonate of sodium.

Interaction with salts

Sodium reacts with salts of all metals except potassium and calcium (they have greater chemical activity than the item in question). In this case, as in the previous, there is a reaction of substitution. The considered metal atoms take the place of atoms more chemically weak metal. Thus, mixing two moles of sodium and one mole of magnesium nitrate, get sodium nitrate in the amount of two moles, as well as pure magnesium — one mole. Write the equation of this reaction: 2Na + Mg(NO3)2 = 2NaNO3 + Mg. The same principle can be obtained, and many other sodium salts. Also this method can be used to obtain metals from their salts.

What happens if you add sodium to the water

This is perhaps one of the most common substances on the planet. And with it, considering the metal is also able to enter into chemical interaction. This forms already discussed above sodium hydroxide, or sodium hydroxide.sodium solution

To conduct such a reaction will need to take two mole of sodium, adding water in the amount of two moles, and the result is two moles of hydroxide and one mole of hydrogen, which will be released as gas with a pungent odor.

Sodium and its effect on organisms

After consideration of the metal from a chemical point of view, let's move on to what, what is the biological characteristic of sodium. He is one of the important trace elements. First of all, it is one of the components of the animal cell. Here he performs important functions along with potassium maintains the membrane potential, is involved in the formation and distribution between the cells of the nerve impulse, is a necessary chemical element for osmotic processes (such as, for the functioning kidney cells). In addition, sodium is responsible for fluid balance in cells. Without this chemical element is impossible to transport blood glucose, so necessary for the functioning of the brain. This metal takes part in the process of muscle contractions.

formula sodium

This trace mineral is needed not only to animals — the sodium in the body plant also performs important functions: it participates in the photosynthesis process, helping to transport carbohydrates, and also necessary for the passage of organic and inorganic substances through membranes.

The Excess and deficiency sodium

Excessive content of this chemical element in the body can lead to excessive salt intake for a long time. Symptoms of excess sodium may be the increase in body temperature, swelling, increased nervous irritability, impaired functioning of the kidneys. In the event of such symptoms should be eliminated from the diet kitchen salt and foods that have a lot of this metal (the list is given below), then immediately consult a doctor. Low content of sodium in the body also leads to unpleasant symptoms and malfunctioning organs. To clean up this chemical element is the chronic administration of diuretics or by eating drink only purified (distilled) water when sweating and dehydration. Symptoms of low sodium are thirst, dry skin and mucous membranes, vomiting and nausea, poor appetite, impaired consciousness and lethargy, tachycardia, cessation of the proper functioning of the kidneys.

Foods that are high in sodium

In order to avoid too high or too low content in the body of the considered chemical element, one must know what kind of food it the most. First of all, this is the above mentioned common salt. She is forty percent sodium. Also it can be sea salt. In addition, this metal is contained in soybeans and soy sauce. A large amount of sodium is observed in seafood. This is seaweed, most types of fish, shrimp, octopus, crabmeat, caviar, crawfish, etc. the Content of sodium in them due to the fact that these organisms live in the salty environment with high concentration of salts of various metals, important for the normal functioning of the body.

The Use of this metal and some of its compounds

The Use of sodium in industry is very versatile. First of all, this substance is used in chemical industry. Here it is necessary to obtain substances, such as the hydroxide of the considered metal, its fluoride, sulfates and nitrates. In addition, it is used as a potent reducing agent — for isolation of pure metals from their salts. There is a special technical sodium intended for use in such purposes. Its properties are recorded in the Guest 3273-75. In connection with the above-mentioned strong reducing properties of sodium are widely used in metallurgy.


Also, this chemical element finds its application in pharmacevticheskiy industry where it is often necessary to obtain its bromide, which is one of the main componentsmany sedatives and antidepressants. In addition, sodium may be used in the manufacture of gas discharge lamps — such are the sources of bright yellow light. Such a chemical as sodium chlorate (NaClO3), which destroys the young plants, so it is used for removal of such from the railway tracks to prevent the overgrowth of the latter. Sodium cyanide is widely used in the industry of getting gold. It is used to get the metal from the rocks.

How to get sodium

The Most common method is the reaction of carbonate is considered metal with carbon. It is necessary to heat the two substances to a temperature of about thousands of degrees Celsius. As a result, formed are two such chemical compounds as sodium and chadny stinking gas. In the interaction of one mole of sodium carbonate with two moles of carbon will make two moles of the desired metal and three moles of carbon monoxide. The equation of the given reaction can be written as follows: NaCO3 + 2C = 2Na + 3СО. Likewise this chemical element can be obtained from other compounds.

Qualitative reactions

The Presence of na+, as with any other cations or anions can be determined by carrying out special chemical manipulation. Qualitative reaction for sodium ion is the burning — if present, its flame will be colored yellow.characteristics of sodium

Where you can meet the considered chemical element in nature

First, as has been said, he is one of the components of both animal and plant cells. Also its high concentration in seawater. In addition, sodium is found in some minerals. This, for example, sylvinite, its formula-NaCl * KCl, carnallite as well as the formula of KCl * MgCl2•6H2O. the First of them has a heterogeneous structure with alternation of multi-colored parts, its color can meet orange, pink, blue, red. This mineral is completely soluble in water. Carnallite, depending on place of education and impurities, also can have different colors. It can be red, yellow, white, light blue, and transparent. It has a soft sheen, light rays are refracted in this much. These two minerals are used as raw materials for the production of metals included in their composition: sodium, potassium, magnesium.

Scientists believe that metal, which we have reviewed in this article, is one of the most common in nature, as mass share in the earth's crust is two and a half percent.

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