The present level of development of scientific-technical progress does not affect the existence of that fire for thousands of years has been and remains one of the most dangerous enemies of human homes.
Despite the widespread introduction of regulations prescribing use to furnish of interiors exclusively non-combustible materials, the statistics is relentless: housing the people today is not invulnerable.
Often the only thing left in the event of a fire, the residents, to flee-that is, to evacuate. The safest way of evacuation from multi-storey buildings fire evacuation stairs.
The Danger for fire is not only fire. Threat also and smoke. But the most terrible enemy is invisible – carbon monoxide. People may not notice its effects (unlike regular burning, carbon monoxide has no smell, no color). Carbon monoxide poisoning is rapidly developing. Within minutes, the victim can lose consciousness, then there is virtually no chance for salvation.
So in each house is required as a prerequisite to the rescue of residents during a fire equipped nezadymlyaemye stairwell. What are the different types of nezadymlyaemye stairs and stairwells?
The Staircase is an integral element of multi-storey buildings. Different conventional designs used for the communication of the floors and the evacuation staircase, i.e. nezadymlyaemye.
The presence of the latter is essential in order to ensure evacuation in case of fire people. For some buildings it is dictated by building codes, so be sure to provided by the architects when creating the project constructions.
Evacuation stairs must be present in high-rise buildings. Such designs provide the safety of occupants during fire or other emergencies. The arrangement of the escape ladders in various types of buildings subject to certain rules regarding their size, configuration and placement. Regardless of the type of model, General purpose data structures – ensuring the safe exit of people from buildings in case of need.
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Tenants, employees and visitors of the institution, using the evacuation stairs, unable to leave the premises without danger to life and health. Emergency exit is designed to protect them from fire and smoke. It is very important to ensure free passage thereto of all the occupants of the building.
The Evacuation ladders can be used as alternative exit from the premises. This is true for buildings, not equipped with a separate back door. Fire safety regulations prohibit the operation of buildings above three floors, not equipped with the emergency staircase.
The Individual requirements to the location of escape ladders. Usually their placing design at the rear of public buildings or from the yard if you plan to release an open type.
If you know that the arrangement of the emergency exit inside the building for a ladder stands in a separate room or hallway. This is necessary to ensure that in case of fire to ensure the safety of people coming down and to prevent the blocking is often the only possible exit from the house.
This room should be equipped with fireproof door that is capable of at least 1 hour to contain the flames. It is important to ensure sealing joints and rapid dissipation of smoke.
Each floor shall be equipped with exit to the stairwell. Its width depends on the size of the passage and steps. Semi-enclosed models include the location within the premises of the platform, the door which leads to an external staircase. This is an excellent option for cases where it is impossible to complete isolation of the passage from the smoke.
For open outdoor types there is a special rule: the distance from the edge of the ladder to the wall should be from 100 cm This reduces the risk of fire at the emergency exit and prevents the heating of the structure, as well as protective handrails.
Since this design is intended for use in emergency situations, including fire, certain requirements is the choice used for its construction materials. The main condition is to ensure the strength and fire resistance of stairs. Therefore, the most popular are materials such as concrete and metal.
The Use of materials that are flammable, crumble or emit toxic substances when heated, is strictly prohibited.
Standards GOST and SNiP are governed by regulations, which installs all types of stairs. They relate and evacuation models.
The Evacuation ladders are classified by material type, location, and design features. There are three main types of modern escape ladders that differ in such characteristics as purpose, width and configuration:
The Latter is used exclusively for evacuation, while the first two types of ladders sometimes replaced the main entrance.
For the evacuation are also used to direct marches, equipped with intermediate sites. In some cases, when there is not enough space to place them parallel or with a slight inclination to the wall, install vertical design like firefighters.
Fire Regulations it is forbidden to build stairs
The Presence of such structures in the house is to ensure maximum safety of life and health of people during fire. They represent the marches of a certain size, which must be located in suitable zones of the structure.
One of the main requirements of the emergency exit, his isolation from the smoke. Nezadymlyaemye stairwells distinguished by the fact that during a fire they do not fall GPP (fumes, smoke, etc.).
The Presence of these structures is provided by the successful evacuation during a fire, people in high-rise buildings. Different requirements apply to them, depending on the specific type.
Nezadymlyaemye staircases are divided into several types, classify which allow distinguish them certain structural features, placement, and ensuring access to them and the principles of operation. Types of staircases:
Fire safety in the stairwells is ensured by rules which provide for safeguarding of human life:
“Building regulations" as follows: in buildings with a height more than 30 m, should be arranged nezadymlyaemye stairwells type H1.
This type requires the installation of stairways, which can penetrate the floor, using to promote a space with open air. The location of H1 may be a veranda, balcony or enclosed stairwell, outside of the room. This is due to the need to provide natural insulation from the smoggy part of the building the emergency exit. The best placement of this type of staircase is the corner of the building. The most advantageous position - internal angle, equipped withadditional piers. Their design feature is the lack of direct communication with the floors of the building.
Normal cells N1 - in the corners of the buildings on the windward side. They are characterized by a balcony appearance and also fences with protective screens. The transition is executed in the form of an open gallery or loggia, should be provided with passage width of 1.2 m. the Width between passes, as the gap from the wall to the window, must be not less than 2 m.
The Stairwell H2 is arranged in the building, the upper floor of which is situated at altitude m. 28-50 In cells H2 creates an air overpressure (the principle thrust of the kiln). It is a permanent or opens in case of fire alarm. Also possible installation of Autonomous pressurization using an air pump providing air pressure, which should be equipped with uninterruptible power supply.
When designing the ventilation systems to properly calculate the thrust (or skid). Pressure should allow free opening of fire doors to the stairs. The pressure is on the lower floor shall be not less than 20 Pascals, upper – not more than 150 Pascals.
Entryways or gateways, through which is the entrance to the stairwell H2, equipped with fire doors. In nezadymlyaemye cells this category is useful for the device of vertical walls with an interval of 7-8 floors.
Nezadymlyaemye stairwell H3 is also built using air overpressure. Their difference lies in the device a special walk-through of premises with self-closing doors. Their size should not be less than 4 sq. m. In cells of this type is the staking of the air in the space occupied by stairs and gateways. Air thrust is performed on a continuous basis or activated automatically in case of fire or smoke.
When creating an evacuation nezadymlyaemye passages most commonly used concrete. He is safe in the fire relation, durable and user friendly material. In addition to the concrete base used steel constructions, for example, in the manufacture of fencing or doors. The metal spans are also justified in light structures.
The Wooden elements are applied in a small volume: a wooden handrail or door handles that are sure to be to handle the fire compositions.
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