GMO: benefit or harm? Genetically modified foods and organisms. Legislative framework

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2019-03-10 17:00:28

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The Topic of this article: "GMOs: good or harm?". Let's try to understand this question impartially. After all, a lack of objectivity sin today, many materials devoted to this controversial topic. Today in many countries (including Russia) the concept of GMOs began to be used, when people talk about "foods that cause tumors and mutations". On all sides of GMOs pour mud on several occasions: tasteless, unsafe, threatening the food sovereignty of our country. But I am afraid of genetically modified foods and what it actually is? Let's answer these questions.

genetically modified foods

The explanation of the concept

GMO is genetically modified organisms, that is modified using genetic engineering techniques. The concept is in a narrow sense also applies to plants. In the past, different breeders, like Michurin, achieved useful properties of plants, using various tricks. These included, in particular, grafting cuttings of some trees on the other or selecting for planting only seeds with certain qualities. After this it was necessary to wait long for results that are only a couple of generations firmly manifested. Today, the desired gene can be transferred to the desired location and are a quick way to get what you want. That is, GM is the direction of evolution in the right direction, its acceleration.

The Original goal of removing GMOs

GMOs benefit or harm

The Purpose of removal of GMOs was initially higher yields of various plants, increasing their resistance to adverse factors (lack of nutrients, drought), the appearance of insensitivity to viruses, unattractive to insect pests. In other words, scientists wanted to get the plants at the lowest cost would be able to grow, produce high yields and to solve thus the food question. And this issue is acute in many countries of the world. That is the main objective pursued genetic engineering and biotechnology in creating GMOs.

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How to create a GMO?

Several methods you can use in order to create a GMO plant. Today's most popular method is the transgene. The necessary gene (e.g., gene for resistance to drought) it is isolated in pure form from the DNA chain. After that, he make in the plant's DNA that you want to modify.

Genes can be transferred from related species. In this case, the process is called cisgenesis. Transgenesis is where a gene is taken from a distant species.

It was the last walk of the horror stories. Many, after learning that wheat exists today with the genome of the Scorpion, begins to fantasize about will not grow if those who use it for food, claws and tail. Many illiterate posting on forums and websites add fuel to the fire. Today the topic of GMOs, the good or harm which is being discussed very actively, has not lost its relevance. However, this is not the only thing the "experts" who are not as familiar with biochemistry and biology, frighten potential consumers of products containing GMOs.

GMO foods

genetic engineering and biotechnology

Today, these products agreed to call anything that is genetically modified organisms or any products that have components of these organisms. That is, GMO foods are not only genetically modified potato or corn, and sausages, which are added in addition to the liver and sodium nitrate GMO soy. But the production of meat from cows fed wheat containing GMOs, will not be considered in this product.

The Effect of GMOs on the human body

Journalists are not versed in such topics as genetic engineering and biotechnology, but understand the relevance and urgency of the problem of GMOs, launched a duck that getting into our intestines and stomach, cells products containing them are absorbed into the bloodstream and then are carried throughout the tissues and organs, which cause cancers and mutations.

Have to say that this fantastic story is far from reality. Any food, GMO or with them, in the intestines and stomach disintegrates under the action of intestinal enzymes, the secret of the pancreas and of the gastric juice on the parts, and they are not genes and even proteins. It's amino acids, triglycerides, simple sugars and fatty acids. All of this in different parts of the digestive tract are then absorbed into the bloodstream, after which is consumed for various purposes: to obtain energy (sugar) as a building material (amino acids), energy reserves (fats).

For Example, if you take genomebiology the body (for example, become similar to cucumber ugly Apple), it will be safely chewed and broken down in the same way as any other GMO.

Other GMO horror stories

GMO

Another bike, no less chilling for the fact that in the human genome integrated transgenes, which leads to terrible consequences like infertility and cancer. For the first time in 2012 the French have written about cancer in mice who were given genetically modified corn. In fact, Gilles-Eric Seralini, leader of the experiment, the sample was taken consisting of 200 rats Spreg-doli. One third of them were fed GMO corn, one third treated with the herbicidegenetically modified maize, and the last - the usual grains. In the end, female rats that consumed genetically modified organisms (GMOs) were given within two years, the growth of tumors in 80 %. Males earned on this diet kidney and liver disease. Characteristically, the usual one-third of the animals also died from various tumors. This line of rats in General are prone to the sudden appearance of the tumors, not associated with the nature of power. Therefore, the purity of the experiment can be considered questionable, and he was recognized as untenable and unscientific.

Similar surveys were conducted previously, in 2005, in our country. GMO studied Russian biologist Ermakova. She presented at a conference in Germany a report on high mortality receive GMO-soy mice. Confirmed in a scientific experiment a statement then began to spread around the world, bringing young mothers into hysterics. After all, they had to be fed artificial mixtures of their babies. And they use GMO soybean. Five experts Nature Biotechnology further agreed that the results of the Russian experiment are ambiguous, and its authenticity is not recognized.

genetically modified organisms GMO

I Want to add that even if a piece of foreign DNA will be in the bloodstream of the person, that this genetic information will not in any way embedded in the body and will not lead to anything. Of course, in nature there are cases of embedding in the alien body pieces of the genome. In particular, some bacteria thus ruining the genetics of the flies. However, such phenomena have not been described in higher animals. Besides the genetic information and non-GMO foods rife. And if they were not integrated into human genetic material still, then you can continue to safely eat all the body absorbs, including GMO.

Benefit or harm?

Monsanto, an American company, in 1982 brought to market genetically modified organisms: soya and cotton. She also is the author kills all vegetation except genetically modified, herbicide "roundup".

In 1996, when the products of the company "Monsanto" was thrown to the markets, corporations, competing with her for the salvation of revenue launched a major campaign, the aim of which was to limit the turnover of GMO products. The first persecution was marked by Arpad Pusztai, a British scientist. He fed GM potatoes to rats. However, later the experts all the calculations of the scientist smashed to smithereens.

Potentially harm for the Russians from GM foods

It is no secret that planted GMO grain lands of never growing anything except themselves. This is due to the fact that varieties of cotton or soybean resistant to herbicides, not Morada them. Thus, they can be sprayed, achieving extinction with the rest of the vegetation.

Glyphosphate is the most common herbicide. He sprayed actually before the maturation of the plants and they quickly decompose, not persisting in the soil. However, the sustainability of GMO plants allow its use in huge quantities, which increases the risk of accumulation of glyphosphate to GMO vegetation. It is also known that this herbicide induces the growth of bone tissue and obesity. And in Latin America and the United States, that's a lot of people suffering from obesity.

GMO seeds

Only one designed a planting GMO seeds. That is, the offspring will not give what will grow from them. Rather, it is a commercial ploy, because in this way the marketing of GM seeds increases. Modified plants, giving the next generation a good time.

As artificial mutation of genes (e.g., soybean or potato) can increase the allergenic properties of the product, it is often argued that GMOs are powerful allergens. But devoid of the usual proteins and some varieties of peanuts do not cause allergies even to those who have suffered it before on this product.

Because of the peculiarities of pollination of GMO plants can reduce the amount of other varieties of its kind. If two sites, located next to plant conventional wheat and wheat-GMO, there is a risk that ordinary supersede modelirovanie, pollinating it. However, it is unlikely that someone would give them to grow together.

Abandoning their own seed funds and using only GMO-seeds, in particular disposable, the state will end up in food depending on companies, holders of seed stock.

Conference with the participation of Rospotrebnadzor

After all the media has been repeatedly publicized horror stories and stories about GMO products, the CPS has participated in many conferences on the subject. At a conference in Italy, held in March 2014, the delegation participated in technical consultations at the low concentration in the trade of genetically modified organisms. Today, therefore, adopted was a course for the almost total avoidance to the food market of our country of such products. Also deferred was the application in agriculture of GM plants, although the use of GM seeds is scheduled to begin in 2013 (government decision of 23 September 2013).

Barcodes

Next came the Ministry of education and science. It is proposed to use a bar code instead of marking "No GMO". It shouldcontain all the information about contained in the product of genetic modification or its absence. A good beginning, but without a special device to read the bar code will be impossible.

Genetically Modified foods and the law

GMOs in Russia

GMOs are regulated by law in some States. In Europe, for example, in the content of their products is not allowed more than 0.9 %, Japan 9 %, USA - 10 %. In our country, the products in which the GMO content exceeds 0.9 percent, subject to mandatory labeling. For violation of these laws to companies threatened with sanctions, up to termination of the activity.

Conclusion

The Conclusion from all this you can do the following: issue of GMOs (benefit or harm from the use of products containing them) today is obviously exaggerated. Unknown effects of long-term use of such products. To date, authoritative scientific experiments on this issue are not conducted.

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