The Plot of the tale «Turandot» Carlo Gozzi borrowed from Azerbaijani poet of the XII century, who wrote in Persian. In 1712, the famous orientalist Petit de La Croix published a collection of Persian tales, where it was first printed. Later it can be found in the collection of stories called "1001 day” and “the Cabinet of fairies”. It is from these books Gozzi took the plot for many of his works. Later in the article, the reader will be able to find its outline. «Turandot» turned out to be a very attractive story, giving birth to the eponymous Opera and theater production.
The Chinese Emperor Altoum decides to marry off his daughter — Turandot. Her beauty is legendary, but even more famous because of its distrust of the stronger sex. Confident that men are liars and incapable of loving, she secretly vowed never to tie the knot.
In Order not to disappoint the father outright refusal, she agrees to notify all of the light that seeks groom. But the applicant for her hand and heart must pass a test — at a meeting of the sages of Princess wish three riddles. Someone who will not be able to guess, beheaded. And only those who give three correct answer will be able to walk her down the aisle. Despite the obvious cruelty of the test, to the Palace of the Emperor flowed the crowd of princes, seized with a burning love for Turandot. Everyone who has seen her portrait ever been pierced by Cupid's arrow.
At this time, in the neighboring Kingdom there is another tragedy: Astrakhan king Timur with his wife and son Calaf is forced to flee his own Palace, pursued by the ferocious Sultan Chorezmi. Capturing the Kingdom of Timur, he orders to kill him and his family.
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The Pursued manages to hide in the realm of Altoma, but the life they have is not Royal. Prince Calaf is taken for any dirty work, to feed themselves and their parents. At the gates of Beijing he accidentally meets his former tutor and tells him this sad story. When they pass by the Palace of the Emperor, calàf asks a passing man that the festival is preparing for its walls. But he said that this is not a happy event. This is preparation for the execution of some Prince who didn't answer the questions of Turandot.
One glance at the portrait of Princess Calaf was enough to burn her a burning love, and he decides to try his hand in this bloody contest.
No matter How to persuade the Prince all around, he was adamant: or Princess will belong to him, or death by her hands. And here he was standing before her in the conference room of the wise. The daughter of the Chinese Emperor came with his two girls — Selimaj and Adelmo.
Last, despite the fact that the Prince calls himself, he immediately recognizes him as a servant in the Palace of her father. Since then, she's in love with a young man and is now trying to adjust against the Turandot Calaf to get it. But Slime it seems worthy of other applicants, and the Princess seem to be more favorably looks at him. However, after guessing riddles, Prince Calaf Turandot brought just mad. The inevitable marriage she did not smile. Seeing the suffering of his beloved, the Prince proposed a new challenge: guess his name.
Princess Turandot is in despair. How to know the name of the mystery man to emerge victorious from the trap that she herself and put? Insidious Adelma promises to help her. She comes to the Prince in the night, and deception forces him to reveal his name.
The next Morning, Turandot solemnly reveals the incognito Prince. Calaf and all the other heartbroken. He is preparing to die, when the Princess is miraculously transformed and falls on his chest. It turns out that she loved him, fearing myself to admit it. But the nobility of the young man conquered it. The Emperor Altoum on the joys promised Adelma her back to her Kingdom, so she wouldn't feel so deprived.
«Turandot» lived a fairly active life for many centuries after its first appearance in the book of Persian fairy tales. German playwright Schiller wrote a play of the same name. According to the romantic tradition, he deepened the image of a capricious Princess, turning Comedy by Carlo Gozzi in the drama. Playing the beginning has dulled, but the images become much more prominent and more difficult.
In the nineteenth century Italian composer Giacomo Puccini used the Schiller story «Turandot» one of his most beautiful operas. The libretto for was D. Adami and R. Simoni. They have changed its interpretation of this tale, turning it into a true hymn to love. Adelma was named Liu, and in Opera, its much more tragic end.
Turandot, demanding that she called the Prince's name, threatens liù with death, but the girl is adamant. On the question of what gives her the strength to resist, Liu replied: “Love” and stabs herself with his dagger. Affected Turandot realizes that in her heart creeps a similar feeling. The Opera ends with a chorus in which to celebrate love, life and the sun.
«Turandot» Opera that stands alone in the works of the acknowledged master of this genre. Puccini it departed from the intimacy inherent in all his earlier works. This is his latest creation, and the composer was in a hurry, afraid that I will not have time to finish it. And so it was — finishing «Turandot» the most talented student of Maestro F. Alfano. Still Opera is put this in his edition.
Puccini a few altered the plot of the fairy tale of Gozzi. For example, a very different interpretation of the received image Delmy. She was a devoted and loving Liu ready to give his life for true love. Puccini was data required all his musical genius to write the stunning beauty of its music. “Let nobody sleeps” is the best of its sample and the most in demand in the repertoire of many singers Aria.
«Turandot» today is put on leading world stages, and it's safe to say that this is the best work of Puccini.
The Premiere was conducted by Arturo Toscanini. In the middle of the third act of the Maestro suddenly lowered his wand and music tar. Turning to the audience, the conductor announced that this was the place in the pen of the composer stopped at the music paper, and with him stopped his heart.
For a Long time the play was banned for production in China, it was believed that in China it is not presented in the best light. In 1998 conducted a Meta Z. finally, “Turandot in the forbidden city”. Production cost China $ 15 million.
Revision Alfano is considered to be not entirely successful, although it is executable. There are two versions: L. Berio (2001) and Hao Veillat (2008).
Surprisingly, this tale proved to be the Swan song of the Italian composer. Play «Turandot» was the last, delivered in the life of the great theatrical Director Vakhtangov. It happened in 1922 in the Third Studio of the Moscow art theatre.
He rightly considered the best in the repertoire. In different times it played in the stars such as Ceceilia Mansurov, Marianna Vertinskaya, Lyudmila Maksakova, Boris Zahava, Alexei Zhiltsov and many others. The first performers were tsetsiliya Mansurova (Turandot) and Yuri Zavadsky (Calaf). Play «Turandot» became the hallmark of the Vakhtangov theatre and determined its further development. We can say that this production gave birth to a new theater school, the Vakhtangov based on the concept of “theatre-festival”.
«Turandot» (Vakhtangov theatre) opened a window not only into a new theatrical relationship. In this production the Director has applied the principles ironic tale, without which it would be impossible the emergence of a new genre of literary fairy tales and the true adept by E. Schwartz.
Staged by Vakhtangov actors played the characters themselves and the actors of the Venetian company. Turned out the original matryoshka. The rivalry between Turandot and Adelmo was both a struggle between the two divas for the heart lover, of Calaf. Unfortunately, gradually, this interpretation was lost and the later generations of spectators have seen a very different show called «Turandot».
The Vakhtangov Theatre was the most visited place theatre of Moscow, the witnesses wrote that the audience with delight and climbed onto the back seat. Ironic mocking lyrics interludes, deliberate game with the use of simple props — all this created a carnival celebration on the stage.
Masks of actors can be interpreted symbolic. No wonder the theater has always had such a sharp social orientation. Remember Gogol's "Auditor". In Soviet times, when it was directly possible to Express only unconditional love for the party, such figurative forms of art could only help to unburden himself.
Emperor Altoum crazy about his daughter - a harmless gentle man. But his country is not gentle manners, and rather cruel laws. Dumb sages of the Sofa — officials with whom should take an example. Its main task — all the time according to nod — they do perfectly. In this Dreamland everything is fine, all smiles and gently shake hands. But to live there uncomfortable, and even scary. It is not surprising that this show had at the time, a phenomenal success.
In 1991, was established the most prestigious theatre award - the ‘crystal Turandot». The idea of its creation occurred to producer Boris Belenky. In the programme document the scene of the ceremony is determined Moscow, as it is a theatrical success.
The Highlight of this award is that the jury is composed of people who have with the theater is not connected, — writers, artists, and musicians. That's why it is called independent. Many famous and favorite actors are the owners of “Crystal Turandot": I. Churikova, O. Efremov, O. Tabakov, M.Ulyanov and others.
The Most famous tale by K. Gozzi proved to be very fruitful for future generations. I hope this article has helped you to learn a brief summary. «Turandot» Puccini, as well as the same play, you will be now much clearer, if you decide to visit the Opera or theater.
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