Norman is one of the names of the Northern peoples. So residents of Central and southern Europe in the VIII-XI centuries were called the groups of fierce warriors who came from the cold countries. Raids were regular troops into the army, and as a result the map of Europe was redrawn.
Disappeared from the face of the Earth the vast Empire of the Franks established a dynasty of Carolingians, Charlemagne. Was captured by England. The Spaniards, to whom the country also reached the brigands, called their pagan monsters – madhouse, putting in the name of the horror before them. The British called them asemanari, that is floating on a boat made of strong ash. In Ancient Russia they were called Vikings. They are known and called “the Vikings" (later it was proved that the term “Viking” the Normans called the sea trip). We can say that the Normans – conquerors, as told by the Frankish poet, “brave to excesses”. Thanks to audacity, fearlessness, maneuverability warriors, their raids have always been successful, but was brutal. The fame of them reached far – they are feared by all European rulers, but wanted to have them in the service.
The Normans were born warriors. Not only the severe nature and living conditions on the shores of the Northern seas made them so. Religion and the laws of the country was, in fact, militaristic. In a happy afterlife where they will forever appease the Valkyries, got only warriors who glorified himself in battle. Even wounded and dying soldier could not leave the battlefield and had to kill enemies to the last breath. And then behind him was the One (the Supreme deity) and took him to the fabulous heavenly country Valhall for eternal bliss. The Normans – people who don't know any mercy to the enemies, nor to yourself. Their laws were struck by the cruelty. One of them frail elderly and disabled children (even minor deviations) were killed. Rules their lives over the centuries.
Meager nature, which made it impossible to grow the necessary amount of food, forced them to ill-treatment of relatives, have identified the need for raids on the nearby fertile and rich territory, which were in the South and in the East and the West. Do not disdain the conquerors and barren Northern territories, they actively inhabit them, forming their colonies there. Rich lands were beyond the seas, and the water spaces of steel for the Normans a second home. They had a wonderful court, stable and sturdy. The warriors were the oarsmen they were not afraid of the sea and swam far inland. Long before Columbus, they discovered America, true North.
Norman – it's a great crew as well and went at the oars and under sail, with the wind and against it. Great warriors and not afraid of anything the pioneers, the fear of which has reached the most remote corners of Europe, was surrounded by legends. The most talented, brave and ruthless warriors became barseki who were werewolves. They were invincible. In the army observed strict discipline, unconditional obedience of the rank and file soldiers senior in rank, there was a code of honor. They were stubborn in achieving goals and composure, not giving to deviate from our path. The character was “Nordic, aged”. Most importantly, they were the final goal – to create their own rich country, and all methods for that were good. But over time they changed.
History of the Normans (and there's documentary evidence) dates back to the year 789. To the shores of England landed three ships, which were the Danes of Harland, subjects of the king Beatrice. And after the devastation of the monastery of the island Lindisfarne, ensuing in 4 years and received a lot of publicity, until the end of the century it was made several raids. Then came 40 years of relative calm. But in the year 835, with the destruction of Sheppey is an English island off the coast of Kent, where it all started. Followed by the annual devastating incursions of the Normans to the shores of the nearby European States. On certain British Islands by the Vikings, made repeated trips mostly in the spring and summer, wintered.
The Anglo-Saxons called them pagans, or Northern people. The name "the Normans" they were given by the Franks. In 855-856 years a great army of pagans landed on the shore East of England forever. But fully conquered Englandwas only in 1066 the Duke of Normandy (Northern region of France) Wilhelm, who is known in history as the Conqueror. That is, first the Norsemen raided the North of France, and even Paris, founded on the territory of the collapsed under their blows the Frankish Empire their own state, and then attacked England. The Story of the Normans with the accession to the English throne, and the Sicilian, in General, ends. Yes and they were called then by the Normans. Ended the raids, because the soldiers became farmers. They had the now fertile land, and to provide a decent life can be had without resorting to arms.
The Conquest of the Normans lasted for three centuries. The result was conquered in the ninth century, parts of Ireland and Scotland. Constant attempts to conquer England led to the fact that in IX-X centuries the city was occupied by the Northern, Eastern and Central parts of the country. Was called the conquered territory Danelare (“the scope of the Danish law”).
They did raids on Frisia – the coastal area between present-day Denmark and the Netherlands. The conquest of the Normans extended not only to Spain and Portugal. In 859 a large fleet consisting of over 60 ships, is Packed full of loot to Spain, arrived to the shores of North Africa. With 844 of the year attacks on Spain were regular, on time, they even managed to capture Seville.
During all his campaigns, the Normans, the Vikings very successfully adapted to the environment and assimilated with the local population. In southern Italy they came in the early eleventh century, and by 1071 it all fell under the rule of the Normans.
A Very important role went to the Vikings in the Crusades. They actively participated in the creation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. On the rivers Volkhov, Lovat, Dnieper and Volga, the Normans, the Vikings reached the Black sea and approached the coast of the Byzantine Empire. Some of them are engaged in trade along the Volga and the Caspian sea and came to Baghdad. Not only warm the earth attracted the Normans. The famous Viking Erik the Red in 985, founded the colony in Greenland, which, despite a harsh climate and harsh living conditions, lasted 400 years. The famous leader of the settlers dedicated to the Saga, which indicated that one of the sons of Eric the Red around the year 1000, visited North America.
For the Vikings, especially in X-XI centuries, raids were not an end in itself. In many areas they settled, forming a state, region, colony. Some settled in Scotland, some in southern Italy. The state of Norman was created in Sicily, in France, in England. Somewhere result was achieved by a direct seizure of the country and the overthrow of the legitimate monarch as in England. Troops of the last king of the Anglo-Saxons, Harold godwinson was defeated at Hastings. The throne goes to the winner William the Conqueror. In the County of Aversa, the first Norman state in southern Italy. It was followed by Melfi and Salerno, Calabria, Apulia and Naples. Later all of them were United in the Kingdom of Sicily. As a rule, first the Vikings came into the service of the local nobility, and then overthrew them.
It Should be noted that the Normans had a managerial genius. They did not destroy previous structures of power, took all the best of what has been achieved. It is noted the amazing ability of the Vikings to fit already formed the legal and cultural institutions to their own needs. They respected the customs and achievements of conquered peoples. The government of the Normans in France, called Normandy began with the occupation of these lands in the ninth century, Norwegian and Danish Vikings. Manages Hrolf the Pedestrian, so named due to the fact that no horse could carry his huge body, and he was forced to move on foot. The Normans forced Charles III the simple-minded to recognize the land at the mouth of the Seine, their property. Hrolf acknowledged himself a vassal of Charles, married his daughter and took the Christian name Rollo. The Normans who came with him, converted to Christianity and willingly mingled with the local population. Taking the best from feudal France, the Normans established a good state structure of power in Normandy and in England and Sicily.
The Meaning of "the Normans" of the simplest. It is translated from the Scandinavian northman literally – “the Northern people”. As already noted, these peoples who lived in Scandinavia, have gained wide popularity due to the wide expansion in the VIII-XI centuries. The Normans combined the soldiers, sailors, merchants, explorers and travelers.Of course, the great people had their own traditions, religion, literature. Culture of the Normans is a branch of the Germanic culture. Experience on numerous campaigns were passed from mouth to mouth, were composed of the Saga. In special honor were poets, called skalds. The Viking religion, embodied in the myths, he tells us the names of the pagan gods – the chief deity Odin and 12 - Thor, Loki, Bragi, Heimdall and others. Was and 4 goddess - Frigg, Freya, Idun, SIF. Mythology was formed from the fifth century until the adoption of Christianity. Written in verse ‘the Elder Edda" and prose “Younger Edda” - the main sources of Norse mythology. Throughout the territory, where lived the Normans, or ran their way to our times preserved stelae, rugged runic characters, archaeologists have found jewelry and talismans. Everything about the Normans, gave rise in our days a powerful pop culture – hundreds of video games, cartoons, popular novels.
Immigrants from Scandinavia had many names, in every country, they were called differently – in Russia they were given the name “the Vikings”. The Normans who came to Russia from the North, was hired to serve the Russian princes, who are native to them, as they themselves have in their veins the blood of Rurik, founded in the IX century the Principality of Novgorod. He was the founder of princely family, who later became the first Russian Royal dynasty. Normans in Russia always was embodied in the powerful, invincible warriors. Therefore, the military ship was given the name “Varyag”, and lyrics glorifying courage and loyalty to the Fatherland, known to many now.
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