Obtaining phenol: basic methods


2018-03-18 01:05:38




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Phenol is a colorless substance crystalline structure with a very specific smell. This substance is widely used in the manufacture of various dyes, plastics, various synthetic fibers (mostly nylon). Before the development of the petrochemical industry in the obtaining of phenol was carried out exclusively from coal tar. Of course, this method was not able to cover all the needs of the booming industry in the phenol, which has now become an important component of almost all of the objects surrounding us.

Getting phenol

Phenol, which has become imperative in connection with an extremely wide range of materials and substances, an essential ingredient to which it is used in the synthesis of phenol-formaldehyde resin. And she, in turn, is an important component of phenolic plastics. Also a large amount of recycled phenol in cyclohexanol necessary for the production of synthetic fibers on an industrial scale.

Obtaining phenol from benzene

Another of the important applications of phenol is possible to allocate production of a mixture of creosols, which are synthesized in createparallelgroup resin used for manufacturing various medicines, antiseptics and antioxidants. So today the receipt of phenol in large quantities is an important task of the petrochemical industry. Already developed many methods to produce this substance in sufficient quantities. Let us consider the main of them.

The oldest and Most proven method is a method of alkaline fusion, which is characterized by high consumption of sulfuric acid for sulfonation of benzene and caustic soda, followed by melting them in benzolsulfonat salt, from which is excreted the substance. Obtaining phenol by chlorination of benzene followed by saponification of chlorobenzene caustic soda is cost-effective only in the case of large quantities of cheap electricity necessary for the production of caustic and chlorine. The main disadvantages of this method – the need to create high pressure (not less than three hundred atmospheres) and a significant degree of corrosion of the equipment.


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Phenol. Receiving

The More modern method is the production of phenol by the decomposition of isopropylbenzene hydroperoxide. However, the scheme of allocation of the required ingredients here is quite complicated, since it calls for pre-production of hydroperoxides by the method of alkylation of benzene with propylene solution. Further, the technology provides for oxidation of the resulting isopropyl-air mixture before the formation of hydroperoxides. As a positive factor of this technique it is possible to note the receipt of phenol in parallel with another important matter – acetone.

There is also a method for the separation of phenol from coke and resins polyoxo solid fuel materials. This procedure is necessary not only to obtain valuable phenol, but also to improve the quality of various hydrocarbon products. One of the properties of phenol is rapid oxidation, which leads to accelerated aging of oil and to the formation of viscous resinoid factions.

But the most modern methods and the latest achievement of the petrochemical industry is the production of phenol from benzene directly by oxidation of its nitrous oxide. The whole process is done in a special adiabatic reactor in which zeolite is a catalyst. The original nitrous oxide is produced by oxidation of ammonia with air or with formation of adipic acid. More precisely, of its by-products generated in the synthesis process. This technology can provide high-purity phenol with the minimum total content of impurities.

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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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