What is a calorimeter in physics? Definition, usage


2018-03-24 06:44:15




1Like 0Dislike


In this article we will answer the question: “What is a calorimeter?”. Define the General characteristics of this mechanism, its working principle and area of application, functionality and measurement values. And also pay attention to the classification and description of some specific types.


what is the calorimeter

Responding to a question about what is a calorimeter, in General terms it can be described as the instrument by which is measured the amount of heat that is allocated or is absorbed in the course of physical, chemical or biological processes.

Enter a new terminological unit “colorimeter” proposed in 1780, P. Laplace, and A. Lavoisier. A similar device is also used in nuclear branch of physics that studies the elementary particles, and it is called ionization calorimeter. However, the function of this device is to measure the energy potential of the particles.

determination of the energy equivalent of the calorimeter

Modern movement

The definition of the heat capacity of the calorimeter modern production allows to fix the examined value with an accuracy of between ten and one hundredth percent. The range in which this device may work, varies from 0.1 to 3500 Kelvin. Device type calorimeters is very diverse. It can be determined by the nature of the process that are studying and its duration. Another important parameter determining the type of movement is the range of temperatures in which the measurements occur, and the number of the measured value of heat.

Determination of the energy equivalent of the calorimeter can show the subject the number of the body that emitted during combustion of the fuel resource. This can be done through the expression Q = C∆T, which – a measure of heat (energy) equivalent. Ask parameters by calibrating the device. Another ∆T – a function of known output signal of the calorimeter.


"Knowledge is light and ignorance is darkness": the value, meaning and alternatives

There are some sayings that would seem to need no explanation, such as “teaching & ndash; light and ignorance – darkness”. But some still do not understand their meaning. But not only for such people is written by our article. I...

What was invented by Mendeleev for the army. The history and fate of the invention

What was invented by Mendeleev for the army. The history and fate of the invention

D. I. Mendeleev was a brilliant Russian scientist-polymath, who made many important discoveries in various fields of science and technology. Many people know that he is the author of “Fundamentals of chemistry" and the periodic law of chem...

The origin of the Slavs. The influence of different cultures

The origin of the Slavs. The influence of different cultures

Slavs (under this name), according to some researchers, appeared in the story only in 6 century ad. However, the language of nationality bears the archaic features of the Indo-European community. This, in turn, suggests that the origin of the Slavs h...

Distribution types

It is Impossible to answer the question, what is the calorimeter, without knowing their types.

One of the most common representatives of such devices is the calorimeter-integrator. It is intended to determine the total amount of heat Q, which is allocated at the beginning of the reaction and its end.

Another well-known calorimeter is a device for measuring power of heat, that is, the rate at which heat is – And L. they can also share the design of the mechanism and measurement methodology, approach. More isolated calorimeters liquid and solid type. There are also single and differential device.

Measurement of heat

in a copper calorimeter

What is the calorimeter in physics? The definition States that it is a device for measuring the amount of heat. The heat generated during the chemical reaction, you can only learn by liquid calorimeter-integrator.

The Design presented in the form of a vessel filled with liquid (usually water). Have the camera for the experiment ("calorimetric bomb”), a stirrer, a thermometer and a device for heating.

Calorimetric Measuring systems

to determine the specific heat capacity of the calorimeter

Adjustments in the natural course of heat the system can detect when a change in any of its States. They, in turn, are determined by analyzing the magnitude of heat which is introduced into the device. The calorimeter constant determination occurs prior to the measuring work and is compared with a predetermined correct value. The devices are calibrated, whereby a ratio. It must be multiplied with the measured thermometer temperature change of the device.

Side effects

In fact calorimetric data show directly only the total number of heats that are investigated in the process. You can still find on the side of the process (or processes) that could cause the phenomenon of mixing, evaporation, and breaking vials of substances, etc. determination of the constants of the calorimeter allows a person to access comparison of the changes in the background of something. With the help of the analysis of the information.

The Heat side of a number of processes must be determined with the help of experience or calculation excluded from research results. Example of side effects can serve as the unavoidable heat exchange between the calorimeter and the surrounding space and matter.

Isothermal observations

There is a calorimeter-integrator isothermal type, allowing to change the state of aggregation of bodies, which form the main part of the system. An example would be the melting of masses of ice in the ice chamber of the calorimeter of Bunsen. To know the change of heat that affects the physical state, but does not cause temperature changes, it is possible if to calculate the mass of the substance and the quantity of heat which it would have required to spend.

To determine the specific heat capacity of the calorimeter should know that it is numerically equal to the quantity of heat required for heating unitsmass of matter. Its unit is j/kg▪K.

It is Important to remember that the rate of specific heat capacity – a controversial feature. There is a relationship between the conditions of heat transfer and value of the work that accompanies this process.


mass calorimeter

To determine the value of the enthalpy of a substance at a temperature up to 2500 degrees Celsius using a massive integrators. The mass of the calorimeter of this type may vary depending on the size and weight of the measured substance, as the design consists of metals. In fact, it is a block with a number of grooves for blood vessels. They reactions intended for the heating device and/or a thermometer. Work values of heat measured by the calorimeter, and the difference of temperature rises in the block shows us the enthalpy of the substances(a).


You Can determine the rate of specific heat of any gas or fluid through the labyrinth flow calorimeter. It fixes the temperature difference, which goes in and out of stationary flows of analyte. It also defines the power of the flow and force of heat, which is released by the heater, in joules.

A Tool to measure the power

Responding to a question about what is the calorimeter, it will be important to mention the purpose of this instrument is to determine the power. Such a device, unlike the integrator, must be endowed with a considerable ability to heat transfer. This is necessary in order to be able to remove the quantity of heat which it is administered. This implies that the calorimeter is in an instantaneous measurement.

The value of the Thermal power of the process are through the use of calorimeters with sheath. The invention was made by a physicist from France, E. Calvet. Initially, the mechanism was presented in the form of a metal block equipped with a TV. They laid special cylindrical cell designed to conduct the process under study. The metal used in the design of the chamber is the shell. Its temperature should be kept at a constant level with an accuracy of up to five or six degrees Kelvin.

determination of the heat capacity of the calorimeter

The Measurement of the difference between the temperature of the cell and the block occurs by means of a thermopile with up to thousands of adhesions. Indicators of its EMF and heat transfer cell values are proportional to the small difference in temperature arising between such components as the block and the cell. In the cell must stand out or be consumed by heat. Very often in these blocks have a couple of cells that will work incrementally.

Name and classification

Common names for the calorimeters are:

  • Chemical reactions
  • Air;
  • Insulated type;
  • Low-temperature type;
  • Ice type.

They All have data on historical origins. His name they usually are required, the area in which they will be used. However, these names do not refer to the comparative or complete feature.

General view of the classification of calorimeters is built using as a basis a consideration of one of the three main variables, separately or together. The approach to analysis of indicators identifies the method of measurement of the temperature, which has:

  • Calorimetric system of the Vehicle;
  • Shell;
  • The number of released heat L during unit time (heat power).

The Calorimeters, with a constant value of TS and are the insulated type and the devices where TC=Is called adiabatic. If the device operates in conditions with a constant difference between the temperatures, it is called the calorimeter constant for heat transfer. Isoperibolic the mechanism is constant, and the Vehicle – thermal power function L.

Final results

what is a calorimeter in physics definition

There are a number of factors that can affect the final measurement result. One of them is the presence of changes that affect their final result. It is due to the reliability of the automatic set temperature controllers isothermal or adiabatic shell. In its most recent temperature value is determined by its proximity to the changing conditions of the entire calorimetric system. This design has a lightness of metal screens and is equipped with a device for heating, which reduces the leakage and the value of the heat transfer to a certain level when the temperature of the calorimeter will change only at the decimal parts of a degree per minute. This may allow to reduce the heat transfer occurring during the calorimetric experiment, to extremely low values, which can be neglected.

The article can devices play a huge role in a person's life and are one of the very important achievements of science. The main function of calorimeter is to study the data of changes of temperature and determining the presence of defects in the heat exchange process. There are different ways of classifying these devices that are associated with specific parameters, drastically different from each other. Material for manufacturing can serve a variety of metals, for example copper calorimeterslead, steel and others. In addition to pure substances, can also be used and alloys.

Article in other languages:

AR: https://tostpost.com/ar/education/4467-what-is-a-calorimeter-in-physics-definition-usage.html

BE: https://tostpost.com/be/adukacyya/7931-shto-takoe-kalarymetr-f-z-cy-vyznachenne-vykarystanne.html

DE: https://tostpost.com/de/bildung/7931-was-ist-calori-in-der-physik-definition-verwendung.html

ES: https://tostpost.com/es/la-educaci-n/7936-qu-es-el-calor-metro-en-la-f-sica-la-definici-n-el-uso-de.html

HI: https://tostpost.com/hi/education/4470-what-is-a-calorimeter-in-physics-definition-usage.html

JA: https://tostpost.com/ja/education/4467-what-is-a-calorimeter-in-physics-definition-usage.html

KK: https://tostpost.com/kk/b-l-m/7933-b-l-kalorimetr-fizika-any-tau-oldanu.html

PL: https://tostpost.com/pl/edukacja/7934-co-to-jest-kalorymetr-w-fizyce-definicja-zastosowanie.html

PT: https://tostpost.com/pt/educa-o/7930-o-que-o-calor-metro-em-f-sica-a-defini-o-o-uso-de.html

TR: https://tostpost.com/tr/e-itim/7937-nedir-kalorimetre-fizik-tan-m-kullan-m.html

UK: https://tostpost.com/uk/osv-ta/7935-scho-take-kalorimetr-u-f-zic-viznachennya-vikoristannya.html

ZH: https://tostpost.com/zh/education/4823-what-is-a-calorimeter-in-physics-definition-usage.html

Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

Comments (0)

This article has no comment, be the first!

Add comment

Related News

2 Catherine: a biography of the Empress. The History Of Russia

2 Catherine: a biography of the Empress. The History Of Russia

Ambiguous personality was 2 Catherine the Great-Russian Empress of German origin. Most of the articles and films she is shown as a lover of courtiers balls and luxury toilets, as well as numerous favorites, with whom she once was ...

Oligosaccharides - what is it? Functions and properties

Oligosaccharides - what is it? Functions and properties

Oligosaccharides – this is a kind of polymeric carbohydrates, the molecules of which contain a small amount of monosaccharides in the chain. The human body, they play an important role in forming a healthy microflora. Nutrit...

Solovyova crossing. The battle of Smolensk. Memorial

Solovyova crossing. The battle of Smolensk. Memorial

there Are also such coincidences in history! Two battles in one place. Only the gap between them – 129.the crossroadsVery long ago, any village Soloviev. Now it belongs to the Kardymovskiy district (this Smolensk oblast). Ac...

What is luxury? The meaning of the word

What is luxury? The meaning of the word

Almost the entire history of the ultimate dream of most people desire to live in luxury. What does this coveted concept, where it came in Russian language and translated into the other? Let's learn about it.the meaning of the word...

Suvorov military school, Tver, address, photo, receipt, reviews

Suvorov military school, Tver, address, photo, receipt, reviews

Kalinin military school (Klswo) the return of the city its historical name changed abbreviation to Tsvu. Now this is the Tver Suvorov military school. Tver is an ancient city, and the cadets got the building built by the famous ar...

Seduction - what is it? The deception and the deceiver

Seduction - what is it? The deception and the deceiver

So people can't solve, and seduction-what's that? The answer to the question requires the disclosure of the meaning of the word. So let's begin to clarify the meaning of the definition immediately.SignificanceOur constant companio...