Governors - is... meaning of the word "Governor"

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2018-04-17 02:00:17

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XIII century in Russia was marked by the integration of the North-Eastern principalities. The capital city, in which sat the Prince, was elected in Moscow. In the service he had many of the boyars, some of whom were engaged in the maintenance and provision of all necessary directly the Prince and his Palace (the butlers), followed by the filling of the Treasury (Treasurer), for the maintenance of combat-ready military units, and many others. However, the Prince is not less life in the capital was interested in the welfare of the people in the townships, or, more simply, on the periphery of the state. It was then that the Prince accepted the decision on creation of such posts as governors and volatile. This decision was intended not only to strictly observe the order in the state, but also to monitor the borders of Russia. To whom the Emperor entrusted these posts? What responsibilities he laid on the governors and volatile? What was their main role? On this and many other will tell that story.

this is the governors

The meaning of the word “Governor”

If we talk in scientific language, to the number of governors to include people who by order of the Prince went to a large city in Russia to represent its interests there. For the first time the governorship had been tested in the Novgorod, first, a person acting as the Emperor “in place”, called “knagin husband”. Only at the end of the 13th century the incumbent people began to be called everywhere "governors". This phenomenon, enhanced power of the Prince on the one hand, but at the same time untied the hands of some unscrupulous officials, which could compromise the legality of its own interests. However, the province existed until the ascension to the throne of Ivan the terrible, that is almost 4 centuries.

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Currently, the word "Governor" is not out of use. The so-called representatives of the Church, entrusted with the duties of the Bishop during his absence.

governors and is volatile

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As we learned previously, governors – representatives of the Prince, from which we can conclude that to obtain this position could only man from the family of the boyars, particularly close to the Royal person. The Prince did not take into account the opinion of the people who live in a particular Principality, or County, and pursued their own interests. Every major city in the Prince of Moscow was sitting “your” the governors. This could not affect the procedure for further appointments, with the result that the position was inherited from father to son. An example of this can serve the following fact: in Meshchera for almost 2 centuries, the governors were the representatives of one boyar families.

Main functions of the Governor

What are the features possessed by the governors? First, they could perform the judicial and other actions designed to restore order in the territories entrusted to them. Under the jurisdiction of the vicar got both civil and criminal cases. Second, they were both captains, and stewards of the Prince's property in their ancestral lands. However, the main business of the Governor was to collect the following taxes and levies in favour of the Prince:

  • Periodic levies (Rozhdestvensky, Petrovsky and Great);
  • Court fees;
  • Trade and the exactions of the marriage;
  • Vyasji tax on crossing the Principality of carts with the goods.

It is Worth noting that the means thus obtained there was not only the Prince, but also the governors. This occupation they often put above its other duties, which was often raised unrest among the common people.

meaning of the word vicar

Governors and volatile: what's the difference?

Governors and volatile – two concepts that are inextricably linked. Despite the great similarity of duties performed, baloteli always stood on the step below governors. If you compare them with modern state system, volatile can be equated to the head of a small municipality, and the Governor – the head of the city or the whole region. If the Governor could be prosecuted for criminal offences, volatily was allowed to conduct only civil cases. Letters on "feeding", that is, the collection of taxes and levies, baloteli received from the Governor or directly at the Prince. As governors, volatile often abused his power, resulting in the coming to power of Ivan the terrible both of these posts were abolished.

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