The State of Australia located on the same continent and some nearby Islands, the largest of which is Tasmania. The area of Australia is 7 682 300 square kilometres. Drying in this case is 7 617 930 sq km coastline stretches for more than twenty-five thousand kilometers.
The Area of Australia in the Central part of the continent occupied a large area of lowlands, much of which represents the basins of lake Eyre and the Murray river. In addition, there is a plain Nullabor. The Western territory of the famous Great Western plateau – area four large deserts: the Gibson, Simpson, Great Sandy and Great Victoria desert.
Features of Australia are such that there are few fresh water. Most rivers are located in the Eastern part of the continent, among them the darling, Murray and others. Waterways, located in the center and in the West dry up in summer.
The Water in most lakes are salty. Is no exception and the biggest of them – air. It is twelve metres below sea level.
The area of mainland Australia is over seven and a half million square kilometres. Its territory is inhabited by 23 625 130 people (as of July 2014). For the most part it is the Europeans – 95%, other 5% are Asians, and aboriginal (4% and 1%, respectively). The official language is English.
It is known that ancient people occupied a certain area of Australia forty thousand years ago. It is assumed that they came from Papua New Guinea and the Indonesian Islands.
The First inhabitants were mainly engaged in hunting and gathering. Representatives of many of the subsequent generations started to settle on the mainland and nearby Islands, exploring the new territory. Despite the rather primitive technical skills based on the use of stone, wood and bones, social and spiritual life was already at a high level. So, most spoke several languages, and sometimes even remote tribal groups organized Confederation.
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At present, the area of Australia mastered as fully as possible. The so-called white spots on the continent not. However, 89% of the population – citizens. That is why Australia is considered one of the most urbanized countries in the world. Average life expectancy for the period 2005-2010 amounted to 81,6 years. Is impressive.
The country has no official religion. Most of the locals are Christians. According in 2006, 25.8% of citizens are adherents of the Catholic faith. Another big denomination – Anglicanism (18.7% of the population). In addition, there are Presbyterians, Adventists, Pentecostals, Methodists, and followers of the Salvation Army, Buddhists, Islamists and Jews.
The Weekly Church service attends about a half million people. An important role in public life played by various Christian charities and hospitals. The system of Catholic schools is also very well developed. About six and a half million children are educated in similar educational institutions. The Anglican Church has been raising about a hundred thousand young citizens. In the network of the United Church has 48 schools.
The Geographical position of Australia leads to significant differences in climate in different parts of the country. So, in the Northern territory is dominated by sub-Equatorial in the Central and South-Equatorial climate. Consider the weather features of Australia. The average annual temperature in the Northern part of the country ranges from 23 to 28 degrees Celsius. Maximum rainfall (up to a thousand millimeters) summer time. Blowing in winter, dry cold winds, leading to droughts. With regard to the coastal plains and the high slopes, they are quite moist and a warm climate. The temperature of the warmest month in Sydney is about twenty-five degrees, and the coldest – about fifteen degrees with the sign “plus”.
In Central and Western regions of the continent the climate is tropical desert. Summer (December to February), the thermometer most of the daylight day is around thirty degrees or slightly below, and in winter falls to ten or fifteen points. In the Central part of the continent in summer even hotter – up to forty-five Celsius. At night the temperature can drop to zero degrees. Precipitation in this part of the country a little – two or three hundred millimeters per year.
The Climate on the South-Western areas similar to the Mediterranean Spanish and French. Typically, summers are hot and dry while winters are wet and warm. The temperature during the year varies slightly.
The Geographical position of Australia and the climate of the country led to the spread of xerophilous plants – special cereals, umbrella Acacias, eucalyptus trees and bottle trees. It is noteworthy that of the 12 thousand species of the local flora 9 thousand are endemic, that is, they can only be found on the mainland.
Tropical forests of the Northern part of the country include eucalyptus, palm, ficus and bamboo. In the southern zone of savannas are often found groups of eucalyptus trees and umbrella Acacias. The earth is spread thick grasscover. In the Eastern part of the country is dominated by subtropical evergreen forests with a large number of gymnosperms, eucalypts and tall ferns with stems twenty meters.
Fauna of the country is considered to be unique. And all because 9/10 of all the species of animals found only in the wonderful continent called Australia. Kangaroos, frill-neck lizards, koalas, and platypuses live only on this continent. Among the animals most marsupials (not less than one hundred and twenty kinds). The country has a lot of bats, dogs, dingoes and rodents. In addition, it is home to egg-laying mammals, the so-called living fossils-the echidna and the platypus.
As for ungulates, monkeys, and representatives of groups prey on the mainland there. But Australia is famous for a large number of birds-ostriches EMUs, cassowaries, parrots, cockatoos, crowned pigeons, birds of medonosov, black swans, birds of Paradise and mirohost. The most unusual reptiles-lizards and snakes-azalide. Amazing inhabitant of South Australian rivers – regsub – deacetylase fish with only one lung.
Australia is a Federal parliamentary state, the full name-the Commonwealth of Australia. Form a Federation of six States-Victoria, Queensland, Tasmania, South and Western Australia, New South Wales. In addition, under the jurisdiction of the Commonwealth are the Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Mac-Donald and Hurd, O. Christmas, Cocos, Coral sea Islands.
The Capital is Canberra. The first of January, 1901, the country gained independence, at the same time, she remains a member of the British Commonwealth. The legislation is based on the common law of England. Australia day, a national holiday and is celebrated on twenty sixth January.
The Executive power is reserved for the British monarch, the Governor General and the Prime Minister heading the Cabinet. The Parliament is formed by the Senate and House of representatives.
Among the political parties having the greatest weight in the state, release Party, Australian Democrats, Australian labor, Liberal party of Australia and National party of Australia.
The State offers a sophisticated economy. For this indicator, it is comparable with the countries of Western Europe. Among the major industries emit mining, steel, chemical, food and automotive. About five percent of GNP provide income from agricultural activities. The main crops are barley and wheat, fruits and sugar cane. Nowhere in the world is bred so many sheep, how many in Australia. In addition, the country's widespread production of poultry and cattle.
The unit of currency is the Australian dollar. Among the main trading partners-the US, New Zealand, UK and Japan. The world's largest supplier of wheat, wool and beef, second largest exporter of lamb – Australia. The area of the continent to the maximum is used in order to ensure effective economic development and a high level of human well-being.
Water resources Australia can not be called rich. Consider the continent-the driest on the planet. Major rivers on the continent are few. What in this regard, Australia? Murray river – this is the main water artery of the country. Its largest tributaries-the Goulburn, Murrumbidgee and darling. They have the highest level of water during the melting of snow in the mountains, but in hot weather there is a significant shallowing. Dam built almost all the tributaries of the Murray, near them organized reservoirs used for irrigation of orchards, pastures and fields.
The Lake can not be called serious water resources of the country, because they are mostly silty, shallow and salty, but travelers some amazing bodies of water attract. For example, Hillier – bright pink lake located on the island of Middle Island. The unusual color of the water in it never changes. Scientists still have not found an explanation for this puzzle. Of no less interest is illuminated the Gippsland lakes, in Victoria. In 2008 there was recorded the highest concentration of micro-organisms Noctiluca scintillans (necesitar). This rare phenomenon was observed not only local residents, but photographer Phil HART. The man had to throw stones into the water to capture the glowing expanse of water, since the unusual microorganisms respond to the glow of it to external stimuli.
The Area of Australia is only two percent forested – these resources in the country too little. However, they attract many travelers due to its unusual appearance. These wet tropical forests, as along the shores of the Coral sea, not found anywhere else.
The Main natural wealth of the country is, of course, mineral resources. In the country the most in the world reserves of zirconium, and bauxite. In addition, the country is in second place for the extraction of uranium and coal. In Tasmania, there are open deposits of platinum. Australia(on the map it is South-West of the continent) rich in gold. On the territory of New South Wales diamonds are extracted, bismuth, antimony and Nickel.
On the mainland ancestors of the Australian aborigines first settled about forty thousand years ago. Because Australia is geographically isolated from the rest of the world, the indigenous people had a unique religious and cultural traditions. The continent was discovered by Europeans only at the dawn of the seventeenth century. The first was the Dutchman Jansson. In 1605 he landed in the Gulf of Carpentaria (North coast). Due to the territorial remoteness of the colonization of Australia began in 1770. Then James cook took possession in the name of king Cove. Subsequently, not far from this place emerged the city of Sydney.
Until 1840 Australia on the world map was not a full state, and only place links to subjects of the British monarch, sentenced to hard labor. In 1850 local colonies became relatively independent from the British crown, and eleven years later they formed the independent Commonwealth of Australia. The country began to develop on his own script. However, the history of Australia has long been associated with England. So, the state has provided substantial assistance to Britain during the First and Second world wars.
Considering the continent is located in three time zones. In the summer time in Brisbane and Sydney ahead of Moscow to six hours, and in Perth – for a four. Local time in Australia varies from state to state.
Many tourists are attracted to the Eastern coast of the country. The most popular resort Gold coast with amazing beaches and almost perfect surfing conditions. Lovers of cultural activities also will not be bored. So, in the capital you can visit the Museum of antiquities Nicholson, the Australian Museum and national Maritime Museum. Melbourne is famous for the National gallery of Victoria, there is also the famous national herbarium and Royal Botanic gardens. What other sights are worth seeing?
Finish the story with a description of the Sydney aquarium. Like much of Australia, it is unique. Such huge complexes in the world: even a simple view without stops at many of the exhibits will take at least three and a half hours. The exposition is divided into zones by geography – the Great barrier reef, Southern and Northern rivers, Southern oceans. The entrance to the aquarium is impossible not to notice, because it is located in bottomless makeshift jaws of the sharks.
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