Separate members of the proposal - what is it?


2018-03-20 17:55:21




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The Ability to write correctly is extremely important for an educated person. Even knowing by heart the rules of the school, the Russian people are able to intuitively find the right letters in words and correctly place commas in sentences. However, sometimes you still need to brush up on this information. For example, to help your child with difficult homework at school or not to make a mistake in a serious report. The most important element of the syntax and grammar of the Russian language are separate members of the sentence. What is it? What are the rules about them need to remember? Let's face it.

What kind Of sentence will be discussed?

Separate parts of a sentence are called, first and foremost, involved and adverbial-participial turnovers. And communion, and the gerund is a special form of the verb. Communion refers to the features of the subject in action, and the gerund - the action that complements the main verb, i.e. the predicate. The momentum of these sentence is so named because it is a separate definition and a separate circumstance, respectively. Let us consider these parts of speech.

The Sacrament

The Form of separate members of the proposal - a separate definition, or communion. The sacrament, as mentioned earlier, is a form of the verb. Therefore, it is always some kind of action. Otherwise it is very similar to adjective. Depending on who performs a specified action, the participle can be active and passive. In the actual sacrament is carried out is able to face him (boy, girl, doctor), and in the passive participle the action takes place on anything, that is, on any subject. Among these types of participles distinguish the past participle and the present. Consider the examples of the separate parts of the sentence - rpm involved.


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Examples of rpm involved

Dining at the table family

Eating Dinner at the table family: "eating dinner" - the active present participle. The person performing the action in this case is family. She eats at the moment, in real time. For the participles, in addition to the suffix-yusch, and other characteristic suffixes: -us, -ash and -crate. The choice of suffix depends on the conjugation of the verb, which is formed of the sacrament. For example, running (the verb "to run" - 1 conjugation); asking (the verb "ask" - 2nd conjugation); screaming ("scream" - 2nd conjugation).

Who Worked on the farmer: "worked" is a valid past participle. The farmer himself worked some time ago. In this case, also the formulation of the suffix -sh. For example, Protecta roof.

the ship is Visible from afar

Visible from afar, the ship: here are the passive present participle. Someone in the moment is ship, so the ship is visible. For the passive present participles formed from a verb 1 conjugation, is also characterized by the suffixes -em and -om, however, the suffix -om is quite rare. For example, take the operator of a movie.

The previously Discussed article: the passive past participle. The article was reviewed by someone some time ago. Depending on the conjugation of the verb are also used as suffixes-UN, -Ann and -NN.

Verbal adjectives

However, for the correct spelling and use of participles you need to know what the verbal adjectives. They are very similar to communion, but unlike them, are not isolated to the secondary members of the sentence. When performing writing and when the punctuation is important to be able to distinguish the passive the past participle (suffix-Ann, -onn, -NN) from verbal adjectives. This type of participles formed from perfective verbs (the question "what to do?"), while verbal adjectives are formed from verbs imperfective ("what to do?"). If the adjectives are written, unlike the participles, with one letter "N". However, when performing tasks on separate parts of the sentence often have problems with spelling and syntax.

Take, for example, the imperfective verb "to knit". The word "knit" (the sweater) is a verbal adjective. The difficulty lies in the fact that with the help of some transformations, given below, it can be turned into communion.

Convert a verbal adjective in the sacrament

Knitted sweater


  1. Add to the adjective any console apart (not). For example, prefix C: "bound" (sweater). The word "associated" is already a sacrament. The same can be said about the word "knotted" (node). In these sacraments since they are the passive of the past tense, is written with two letters "n". You should pay attention to what the words "bind" and "tie" are the perfect verbs, i.e. they cannot form a verbal adjective. Bringing the source of the verb to the perfect form is also a method of converting an adjective into a verb. For example, "oven" (what?) model on the "to bake" (what to do?) and formed from it the word "baked". Wegot a passive past participle.
  2. To add to the verbal adjective dependent words. Then the adjective will become a sacrament, and together with their dependent words forms a separate part of the sentence is a gerund. For example, "knit knitting" (sweater) or "firmly tied" (node). It is important to remember that if the verbal adjective becomes a sacrament, it contains the suffix the two letters "n".

How in this case to correctly place the punctuation marks in separate parts of the sentence?

The punctuation with separate definitions

Let us Consider some cases.

Running boy
  1. A gerund is after the defined. Define the word from which the question is asked. For example, in the sentence "the Boy noticed the tree interesting the bird, ran to see" the word "boy" is defined. Boy - what? - noticed on the tree is an interesting bird. Thus, participial, located after the designated word, always stands by commas.
  2. A gerund is before the modified word. Consider the following sentence: "Fleeing through the forest, the offender managed to escape from the police". Define the word "criminal." He what? Fleeing through the forest. A gerund in this case is not segregated.
  3. Single communion. It is often located before the modified word, and indicates the basis for action. In this case, the semicolon is not necessary. Example sentences: "Hiding the kid ran to call their parents."
  4. Multiple rpm involved. In this case, dealing with punctuation marks is a bit more complicated. However, if you remember the rules of setting commas in homogeneous parts of the sentence, you can easily cope with the task. For example: "the Student was upset because of the incident, but has not shown that the rest came home in a bad mood."

So we figured out how to isolate the parts of the sentence, expressed involved in trafficking. When punctuation ability to find the designated word is extremely important. To correctly identify the place of a comma when involved in circulation, you need to find the designated word, itself a gerund (or a few) and then determine their location relative to each other. It should be noted that in the proposal as involved and adverbial-participial turnover contains two (or more) actions that are executed most often the subject (a verb and the extra part of the sentence).

Now consider the following form of separate clarification of the sentence - adverbial participles.


Rules of the Russian language

Gerunds are invariable parts of speech and represent an extension to the verb-predicate of the action. The participial turnovers, or isolated circumstances circulate and make it difficult proposition, adding to it an additional step. Unlike the participles, the form of detached parts of the sentence are divided only into two types: adverbial participles perfect and imperfect.

The adverbial participle Types

We know that a feature like "view" is inherent in the verbs. Despite the fact that participles, and gerunds are special forms of the verb, this feature is "inherited" only gerunds. So, the participle formed from the verb imperfect, answer to the question "doing what?", gerunds and perfect - the question "what doing?". It is important to remember that gerunds do not have endings. For the first characters of the suffixes-a, -I; and the second suffixes-in, -Shi, -lice. Consider the examples.

Examples of gerunds and verbal participle phrases

"what doing?" answer the following gerunds: "reading" (textbook), "considering" (poster), "unaware" of (danger), "spreading" (the rumors), "hearing" (a strange sound). They are formed from verbs imperfect. It should be noted that gerunds retain such features of the source verbs as transitivity and repayment. For example, from the reflexive verb "return" forms a reflexive imperfective gerund "returning".

"what doing?" answer the following participle: "running away" (from the pursuer), "telling" (history), "chosen" (the place). These gerunds are formed respectively from the perfect verbs. The suffix-lice, and Shi, most often in the reflexive gerund perfective. For example, "sitting" (at the hotel).

Commas in certain circumstances

isolated sentence exercises

The Participial turnovers and most gerunds are always allocated with a comma in the sentence. The participial turnover may take place before the verb-predicate, and after it.

For Example: "Forgetting her promise, she went for a walk with friends." Or: "Reading an interesting book, the man falls into a magical world of fantasy".

However, in this case, there are exceptions.

In some cases, gerunds are not isolated?

  1. Gerund is a stable expression that is an idiom: "He did his work carelessly".
  2. Before turnover isUnion I. for Example: "He thought about his behavior and getting ready for bed".
  3. Gerunds Such as "starting", "on", "depends" and some other verb sometimes lose value and become prepositions. In this case, the participial turnover not allocated by commas: "I figured it out based on data from last year's report."
  4. The proposal is there another (or more) a circumstance related to the same word as gerund: "is Ashamed and without raising his eyes, he stood before his teacher."
  5. Some simple participle ("silence", "sitting", "lying" and others) are not allocated by commas.

Examples from works of art

Examples of fiction

M. I. Bulgakov, "Master and Margarita" (a gerund):

Thirty years the Childless Margherita was the wife of a very prominent expert, also did the most important discovery of state significance.

L. N. Tolstoy, "War and peace" (participial turnover):

The Youth house Growth, upon returning from the theater, had supper, sat at the clavichord.

N. V. Gogol "the government Inspector" (the participial turnover):

Governor: One of them, like this one that has a thick face... can't remember his name, can not do without in order, king to the Department, not to make a face like that (makes a face), and then begin hand from under the tie to iron his beard.

John. K. Rowling, "Harry Potter and the philosopher's stone" (participial):

His excitement grew stronger with every minute, because standing on the platform people started to throw him strange looks — perhaps, it was Boucle.

E. M. remark, "Three comrades" (participial turnover):

He disassembled the car, as a pocket watch, and for several months worked on it, sometimes staying in the Studio until late at night.

Mikhail Sholokhov, "Quiet don" (participial):

Dolled up in a green woolen skirt, Aksinya summed him a horse.

V. Y. Dragoons, "Deniska's stories": "Healthy thought" (participial rpm):

He wheeled around and threw, he jumped up and rushed forward, pausing briefly, and then giving a hundred knots per hour.

So, in this article, we met special members offers - distinct circumstances and definitions. Knowing the rules of their spelling and punctuation when they could correctly perform the exercises on the separate parts of the sentence. Because literacy is the most important skill of an educated person. Success in learning the Russian language!

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