The Station energy security operate today in different variations. Power plants working on thermal energy are not the most common, but they have a lot of attractive qualities from the point of view of applications. This type of equipment is used for the generation, transformation and transmission of electricity to consumers. But for the effective performance of the functions of thermal power plant should be appropriately maintained. This applies to base measures of technical prevention and of the organization of control systems, as well as to a more responsible repair operations.
The power Plant is a complex of systems, components and assemblies that operate on electricity from the conversion of heat into mechanical energy. The basis of such stations serves a generator with a rotating shaft. The complex also includes a combustion chamber in which the process of heat generation. It is important to note that the operation of thermal power plants and heating networks often involves the allocation of steam. This applies to those installations which are also supplied with water communication, which is an increase in steam pressure, with the result that activates the rotation of the turbine rotor. Thus the generated energy is transmitted to the shaft of the main rotor of the engine, which leads to the production of electric current. It is not always generated thermal energy is entirely spent on the generation of electricity. Depending on the location and needs of consumers, part of it can be used for heating.
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One of the key performance characteristics is the voltage with which the station operates. Usually complexes with a potential of 1000 V or more. The former is applied locally as a means of energy supply specific objects – usually industrial. The second type of stations that support voltage exceeding 1000 V used to service the individual districts, and even cities. Most often it is the installation that implement conversion and distribution tasks. No less important characteristic is the power, which varies in the range of 3-6 GW. This figure largely depends on the type of fuel that is burned in the combustion chamber. To date, the rules of operation of thermal power plants allowed the use of diesel, fuel oil, natural gas, and traditional solid elements.
Most power plants in one way or another are the infrastructure of a heat network. If the distribution of electrical energy network are formed of high-voltage lines, in this case, the technical basis of communication are heat pipes that provide hot water. On each line the appropriate size shut-off valves with gate valves and control means of the coolant. Thus thermal power plant can be interfaced with the same grid. Thus is formed a combined infrastructure network in which the distribution is made and the channel of the heat supply, and power lines.
In addition, practices and organization of work of the steam lines that enter the structure of the thermal channels. In such cases, the operation of thermal power plants and heating networks involves the installation of more effective systems for condensate drainage. Also with a certain step along the line of strip devices are installed launch steam drain wire.
The List of functions performed by the staff operating the power plant can be divided into several groups. Basic tasks include maintenance of equipment, involving the control of the operating parameters in accordance with the design requirements. The following group of functions due to security requirements. It concerns the maintenance of standards of protection from fires, observance of standards of labour protection, etc. in addition, thermal plants need regular preventive maintenance. In this category of functions include diagnostic and repair actions. The staff should revise the components of the power plant, to test the suitability of its technical and operational characteristics, etc. On the results of this work formed the documentation, which recorded the acts of carrying out repairs, diagnostics, and accidents and accidents.
Part of the infrastructure of a heat network, the plant is introduced after the implementation of the admission. To assess the quality of the equipment and check it for compliance with technical regulations is performed acceptance tests. Depending on the conditionsoperation a draft of the circumstances under which thermal power plant. Eligibility rules require that the list of works together with pre-commissioning operations were carried out by the contractor responsible for the design of the specific scheme of the heat network, which integrates object.
Special attention deserves the technical organization of trials. At this stage, prepared the tools, protection, spare parts, fuel and other consumables. The rules of operation of thermal power plants require that before completing the acceptance, the customer has made a complex testing of the equipment. It is necessary for the validation of joint work of units and aggregates of the station in conjunction with additional equipment under load.
Maintaining plants in good technical condition is the most important task of the staff. Experts check the quality of functioning of separate parts of the station and overall efficiency. Being put to the test and e-filling, and the mechanics of the body. It also assesses the integrity of materials of construction for parts of the power unit and the housing. In accordance with the norms of technical operation of thermal power plants is carried out with periodic inspection of metals by nondestructive methods. Then there is the Troubleshooting devices that do not alter the structure of the material, but allow us to identify possible foci of destruction and deformation.
Manage power plants is gradually moving from traditional manual methods to automation systems. Using the controller, the operator can maintain the optimum performance of all functional blocks of the power plant, not looking up from the control tower. In this case, the operation of thermal power plants and is closely interfaced with sensors that record certain data on the work station, sending information to the remote control. Based on this information, the system and decides on the correction of the operating parameters.
The power Plant cannot be considered as an Autonomous object of electricity generation. Its function is provided by a consumable fuel material, which also requires compliance with the maintenance measures. In particular, the fuel economy involves the organization of storage of products of combustion of the future. The current rules of technical operation of thermal power plants require that service companies contain dedicated storage areas for such purposes. Each such storage provides for equipment for loading and unloading of fuel materials, weighing them, stacking and sorting.
The operation of the power plants mandatory focuses on achieving optimal performance. This is achieved by improving the efficiency of staff, introduction of new management systems and modernization of power units. However, thermal power does not always justify themselves financially. This particularly applies to stations that have passed the technological upgrade. In addition to improving the efficiency of management of such objects on the whole are more costly. For this reason, many operators strive to maintain the traditional principles of control and management of power plants.