Exploitation-exploration drilling – activities aimed at the search of raw materials in the bowels of the earth. In the early 19th century in France this way conducted a search of the water. In 50-ies of the same century with Exploratory drilling was looking for oil.
Today is The drilling of exploratory wells is powerful and sophisticated equipment.
For the destruction of the breed used a special chisel. It is attached to drill pipe. In the process of Exploratory drilling Bits wear out, consequently, it must be changed. To do this, the tubing string rises to the top, removed the worn-out element, screwed a new one. Then the whole column goes down into the bowels of the earth again.
The Bit has a greater diameter than the tube. After passing through a stratum of rock between it and the pipe there is a gap. With the help of powerful pumps moves the solution in the drill pipe. He falls down and then in the annular space rises. At the top of his clear of a breed and re-injected into the well. These works are qualified professionals – < / span>Drillers of operational and exploration drilling. Of course, at one facility has a team.
In 1922, the Soviet engineer Kapelyushnikov proposed a new method Exploratory drilling – turbine. At the bottom of the well dropped the motor, which rotates the bit. Thanks to this innovation eliminated the need to move the entire pipe string, which significantly saves energy.
Subsequently, the method turbocharged Exploratory drilling has been changed several times. Today, the turbodrill is a complex Assembly whose length is of the order of 10 m. Each tier is equipped with 2 wheels with profiled blades. One of them – the stator. He still secured in the unit housing. Second – a rotating rotor. The movement of the turbodrill is driven through the drilling mud pumped into the well under pressure. He washes away the remnants of the rocks and cleans the rotor blades.
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Each section of the unit develops a relatively low power. However, the cumulative force is enough to fracture even the hardest rock.
Its quality focus. The drilling mud performs several functions. First he lifts the rubble of the collapsed rocks to the surface. In addition, due to a turbodrill is driven in rotation, cooled the chisel.
Used as a drilling mud was made by the water. Currently not in use. This is due to the following. The water is really able to make a ruined breed on the surface. However, in the case of stopping the process, all the debris will start to settle down. After some time, they will fill the annular space. As a result, all equipment will remain under the debris. Pull the Assembly almost impossible. All this will entail serious financial losses because the cost of the machine and its elements is several million rubles.
In order to avoid such situations use a special clay solution on the basis of the clay powder. It does not allow the rock to settle in the case of suspension of drilling. After the resumption of the process cuttings (broken rock) will go up again.
When drilling depths can be present in different layers (oil, water, gas). One of the key conditions of the process is to ensure their safety.
For example, drilled 4 km hole with a diameter of 30 cm Regular sealing on top will lead to very dangerous consequences. From different layers of the mixture will begin to fill the space. Then from the reservoir in which the high pressure, the substances will penetrate into the other levels. They, in turn, can contain water layers close to the surface. As a result, the oil or gas will penetrate into the lakes and rivers, the city's reservoir.
To prevent such consequences, in the process of drilling the borehole is filled with drilling fluid. It prevents the penetration fractions of several layers in the formed space. But to achieve this required the solution of a certain density, and he should not penetrate into the seams.
As above mentioned, the drill involved several workers. The team includes not only highly skilled drillers, but also support staff.
The duties of the employee are also to take part in the elimination of accidents and complications.
The Assistant driller should know:
Since the tasks of the worker logs and service units, it must know the rules of cooking, cleaning, processing solutions, their basic physico-chemical parameters, the rules for the preparation of pipes for the descent, installation diagram for drilling, the manual BOP equipment.
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