Shell – artillery gun that is designed for mounted shooting. The aim may be concentrations of enemy manpower, located behind artificial or natural barriers.
I must say that mounted shooting can be used for bunkers, tank obstacles, bunkers and other fortifications. Due to the high mass and power of this type of weapons is very effective even in mountainous terrain. As a rule, the firing of howitzers is conducted exclusively from the closed position, so as to their relocation requires considerable time.
Today we will describe the famous howitzer D-30, which entered service with the Soviet army in the early 60-ies of the last century.
It is Known that the most widespread on the battlefield howitzers received during the First world war. The fact that the widely practiced tactics of a positional battle, which has been characterized by a well-equipped and fortified positions of all the warring parties.
So, in the Imperial army was armed with the howitzer of 152 mm caliber (classic caliber for the Soviet and Russian army, by the way). Incidentally, these weapons were later used for the defense of Moscow in 1941!
In the Soviet army howitzers were many. Gauges were also different. What is particularly interesting. Large-caliber guns were used only selected guard units. So, howitzer B-4, the caliber of which was from 203 mm, was part of a special howitzer artillery regiments. They report directly to the chief command. Their task was quantitative and qualitative strengthening of the artillery units in all major offensive and defensive lines.
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The Corps artillery was content standing on its armed with howitzers of calibre of 152 mm. the Division is relying shells caliber 122 mm. the fact that such weapons was much easier, and therefore had impressive mobility. This is largely ensured the popularity of the same D-30. Howitzer, firing range of more than a dozen kilometers could be served by a relatively small calculation, and for transportation is not required any special equipment.
In this difficult time, the main divisional howitzer, which was in service with the red army, was a famous M-30. Its designer was the famous engineer F. F. Petrov. This weapon was widely used on almost all active fronts of that era. During the war managed to produce more than 17.5 thousand of these guns the calibre of which was 122 mm. Why, then, was not used and the caliber of 152 mm? Howitzer D-30, like its predecessor, was designed as quick and easy. This imposes serious limitations on the weight of the ammunition.
The M-30 was so successful from a technical point of view that remained in service with Soviet forces until the 60-ies of the last century. In General, for replacement, and was developed before us howitzer D-30.
It was Created in design Bureau of the plant number 9, and the development of led already known to us Fedor Petrov. The peculiarity of this weapon lies in the fact that it was accepted into service in the midst of the “rocket boom”, when the efforts of Khrushchev to the standard cannon artillery are generally almost put bold cross. In General, the fact that the howitzer D-30 was put into service at that time, proof of its higher specifications.
The initial speed of the projectile
Maximum angle of elevation of the barrel (elevation)
The Angle of rotation in the horizontal plane
At least eight rounds per minute
The Maximum range of defeats the purpose.
Weight of standard (high-explosive) projectile
What other shots could use a howitzer D-30? The shells are armor-piercing and incendiary types. Above this main technical characteristics of this tool. As you can see, howitzer D-30 for its time was quite the perfect device.
Especially interesting is the carriage, having a curious and original design. The fact that most guns in this class there are two frame, while the 122-mm howitzer D-30 has three. Unfolded, they form a great platform on which the weapon can easily turn with just three or four people and to fire targets at 360 degrees. Of course, such advanced design of the carriage determined and a way to transport guns. Unlike all others, the 122-mm howitzer D-30 is towed with the barrel forward. Specially for towing directly on the trunkprovided for mounting the device. We are talking about the pivot beams.
It beams the weapon hooked onto the tow bar of the tractor for further transportation. Speaking of which, as thrust can be used as wheeled and tracked vehicles. Operating requirements state that on good roads the tool can be transported at speeds up to 80 km/h, which is one of the hallmarks of D-30. Howitzer, a photo of which appears several times in the article, is in the firing position by raising the wheels above the ground level.
For this combat calculation is to differentiate between the two rails of the frame at an angle of 120 degrees. Note that at this point the gun must be raised by a Jack. Then, the third frame also folds away to the side, and howitzer smoothly lowered to the ground.
To ensure the immobility of the weapon in a not so stable surface, using special tines made of hardened steel which are hammered into the ground through the eyelets in the frame. Note that the term translation from marching to combat position and Vice versa is only two or three minutes.
What a shutter was fitted with a D-30? Howitzer, a photo of which you can see above, has a standard breech semi-automatic type (wedge). The barrel is threaded, just done 36 of the rifling. To raise or lower it uses flywheels lifting and rotary mechanisms.
To protect calculation from bullets and shrapnel on the instrument panel is mounted a special device. In addition, the shield serves as a barrier powerful muzzle wave, which appears at the time of the shot and can also cause severe injuries to the calculation, which serves the weapon. In 1978, the howitzer was subjected to modernization, in which the design of the shield device and the carriage have been somewhat simplified and improved.
Then it was rejected a plan to transfer weapons to the caliber of 152 mm. Howitzer D-30 have kept their main technical characteristics.
One can Often hear the question, what sort of knot is right on the barrel of the howitzer, in front of scutellum. This wheel device that facilitates combat the exploitation of a cannon, whose weight is 3.2 tons. It is covered with a protective casing consists of two metal cylinders. The first of these – a hydraulic brake, which slows down the time of the rollback, the second – a hydropneumatic lakatnik.
As you can tell from the name of this mechanism, immediately after the shot it returns the barrel to its original position. This mechanism not only ensures the stability of the weapon when shooting, but also greatly prolongs the service life of the entire carriage, on which as a result have a much smaller mechanical load.
Normal traffic nakatake – from 46 to 48 atmospheres. To make it clearer, you can give an example with tires of an ordinary passenger car, in which the same rate – just two day. As for the hydraulics, then as its working fluid is used STEOL-M. note that the substance is extremely poisonous, which requires care in the service mechanism.
If you look at any photo in the article, you'll notice element, which is equipped with a gun. Howitzer D-30 has a slotted muzzle brake. It is possible to reduce the force of impact is approximately two times. The muzzle brake is removable, if necessary, its removal is performed by calculation in a relatively short time. By the way, on the territory of the fortress howitzers installed without these devices. Of them at 12 o'clock in the afternoon daily made single shot.
The shooting is performed or by pressing directly on the lever of the trigger, or by means of a cable, which for this device is hooked.
The ammunition includes rounds of separate loading. Before the volley into the barrel the projectile is sent. After him, there goes the propellant in a separate casing. By varying the powder charge, you have the flexibility to change the required range. As we have noted, the main projectile ammunition is a high explosive shot.
To the maximum extent possible to act effectively against clusters of enemy troops, it is set on shrapnel effect. Make it simple: with fuse, which is located at the end of the shell, twist the protective cap. If this is not done, then the projectile before the explosion a little further into the ground. This is especially useful in cases when you want to destroy hardened enemy targets or to destroy entrenched on the ground infantry.
In addition, there are flares, smoke, agitation and other types of shots. As for propaganda shells, in their warhead is not an explosive, and the bundle of leaflets. Such an explosion occurs in the air, and a rain of leaflets falls on enemy positions.
If you want to hit enemy armored vehicles, used heat shells. Of course, this requires you to fire straightfire. To do it as efficiently as possible, the designers have envisaged the possibility of mounting a special optical sight. At the target height of two meters shooting at a range of up to 860 meters. The power of a 122 mm projectile, in this case, confident enough to defeat almost all modern MBT (main battle tanks).
For firing from concealed positions using the sight of the panoramic type. I must say that the artillery skill such shooting is the most difficult because it requires a training calculation. It should be noted that the firing in this case is the appropriateness only after a preliminary topographic reference to the landmarks.
The Highest degree of skill recognized shooting in mountainous terrain, where binding is often required orientation to the sun. It is important to note that when firing from the closed position is extremely important the correct and timely work of the intelligence services, which lays down the liability, including visual tracking of the effectiveness of volleys. In this case, the firing range of the howitzers D-30 serves scouts in good stead, as they may operate secretly, without giving away their location to the enemy.
Specially for paratroopers developed a technique of dropping a howitzer on parachutes. It should be noted that this weapon does not need to be removed - the packaging is simple, can be performed by the forces platoon for a few minutes.
You Should know that the howitzer D-30, performance characteristics of which were reviewed by us in the article, was used in the creation of self-propelled tank destroyer ‘Carnation’. The gun got slightly modified, non-removable muzzle brake. Still old howitzer is in service with armies of over 50 countries of the world. It was used in almost all major military conflicts of recent years. Scored this weapon in Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria, etc.
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