Features of the structure of the nucleus. The structure and function of the cell nucleus


2018-03-17 21:06:12




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Cell Nucleus - the major organelle, the place of storage and reproduction of genetic information. Is a membranous structure, which occupies 10-40% of cells, whose functions are very important for the life of eukaryotes. However, even without a kernel implementation of genetic information possible. An example of this process is the bacterial cells. However, the particular features of the nuclear structure and its purpose are very important for a multicellular organism.

structure of a kernel

Location of the nucleus in the cell and its structure

The Core is located deep in the cytoplasm and in direct contact with the rough and smooth endoplasmic network. It is surrounded by two membranes separated by the perinuclear space. Inside the nucleus there is a matrix, chromatin, and a number of nucleoli.

Some Mature human cells do not have nucleus and other functioning in conditions of strong suppression of its activities. In General, the structure of the nucleus (diagram) is represented as a nuclear cavity, bounded by the karyolemma of the cell that contains chromatin and nucleoli fixed in nucleoplasm nuclear matrix.

Core structure and functions

The Structure of karyolemma

For the convenience of study the cell core, the latter should be seen as vesicles bounded by membranes from other bubbles. The kernel is a vial of hereditary information, in the thickness of the cell. From the cytoplasm it is shielded bilayer lipid membrane. The structure of the shell of the nucleus similar to the cell membrane. In reality they distinguished only the name and the number of layers. Without all this, they are identical in structure and functions.


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The Structure of karyolemma (nuclear membrane) double-layer: it consists of two lipid layers. Silipigni outer layer of karyolemma in direct contact with the rough reticulum of endoplasmic cells. Internal karyolemma - content of the nucleus. Between the outer and inner karyomapping there is the perinuclear space. Apparently, it was formed due to the electrostatic phenomenon, the repulsive sites of the glycerol residue.

The Function of the nuclear membrane is the creation of a mechanical barrier between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Inner membrane of the nucleus is the place of fixation of the nuclear matrix - chain protein molecules, which support surround structure. Two nuclear membranes there are special pores through the cytoplasm to the ribosome enters the RNA. In most thicker core are more nucleoli and chromatin.

Internal structure of nucleoplasm

Features of the structure of the nucleus allow us to compare it with the cell. Inside the nucleus also has a special environment (nucleoplasm), presented by the gel-Sol which is a colloidal solution of proteins. It is in nucleoside (matrix), represented by fibrillar proteins. The main difference is only that in the nucleus are mainly acidic proteins. Apparently, this reaction environment is necessary for preservation of chemical properties of nucleic acids and the flow of biochemical reactions.

the Structure of the cell nucleus


The Structure of the cell nucleus cannot be completed without nucleolus. It is spiralizatia ribosomal RNA, which is in the process of maturing. Later it will make a ribosome - the organelle that is required for protein synthesis. In the structure of nucleolus there are two components: a fibrillar and globular. They differ only by electron microscopy and do not have their membranes.

Fibrillar component is located in the centre of the nucleolus. It is a strand of ribosomal RNA of a type of which will be assembled ribosomal subunits. If we consider the kernel (structure and function), it is obvious that they will subsequently be formed by the granular component. It's the same maturing ribosomal subunits that are at later stages of development. Of them soon formed the ribosome. They are removed from nucleoplasm through the nuclear pore karyolemma and fall to the membrane of rough endoplasmic reticulum.

Chromatin and chromosomes

The Structure and function of the cell nucleus are organically connected: present here only the structures needed for storage and playback of genetic information. There is also kariokee (matrix kernel), the function of which is to maintain the shape of the organelles. However, the most important component of the nucleus is chromatin. This chromosome, which play the role of card indexes of different groups of genes.

the Structure and function of the cell nucleus

Chromatin is a protein complex, which consists of polypeptide Quaternary structure, coupled with nucleic acid (RNA or DNA). In plasmids of bacterial chromatin is also present. Almost a quarter of the total weight of chromatin are the histones - proteins, responsible for the "packaging" of genetic information. This feature structure is studying biochemistry and biology. The structure of complex nuclei because of chromatin and processes that alternates its spiralization and despiralization.

The Presence of histones gives you the ability to condense and complement the DNA strand in a small place in the cell nucleus. This occurs in the following manner: histones form nucleosome, which represent a structure like beads. Н2В, H3, and H4 Н2А is the major histone proteins. Nucleosome formed four pairs each of histones. The histone H1 is a linker: it is associated with DNA in the e entrance to nucleosome. DNA packaging occurs as a result of "winding" of linear molecules 8 gistonov protein structure.

The Structure of the nucleus, which is presented above, implies the existence of solenoidvalves the DNA complement of histones. The thickness of this conglomerate is about 30 nm. The structure can be compacted to take up less space and is less subject to mechanical damage that inevitably arise during the life of the cell.

Fraction of chromatin

The Structure, the structure and function of the cell nucleus fixated on how to support the dynamic processes of helix and despiralization of chromatin. Because there are two main fractions: strongly spiralizatia (heterochromatin) and maloperanskaya (euchromatin). They are separated both structurally and functionally. In heterochromatin the DNA is well protected from any impacts and cannot be transcribed. Euchromatin is protected weaker, however, genes can be doubled for protein synthesis. Most often, the sites of heterochromatin and euchromatin are interspersed along the length of the whole chromosome.


Cell nucleus, structure and functions of which are described in this publication contains chromosomes. This is a complex and densely Packed chromatin can be seen under light microscope. However, this is possible only if on the slide the cell in the stage of mitotic or meiotic division. One of stages is spiralizatia of chromatin with the formation of chromosomes. Their structure is extremely simple: the chromosome is the telomere and the two arms. Every multicellular organism of the same species the same structure of the kernel. Table chromosomes it is also the same.

structure of the nucleus scheme

Implementation of core functionality

The Main features of the nuclear structure are associated with some functions and the need for their control. The core plays the role of repository of genetic information, that is, it is a kind of card index of recorded sequences of amino acids of all proteins that can be synthesized in the cell. So, to perform any function the cell must synthesize protein whose structure is encoded in the gene.

structure of the nucleus table

So the kernel "understood", what exactly need to synthesize protein at the right time, there is a system of outer (diaphragm) and internal receptors. Information from them goes to the nucleus by molecular transmitters. Most often this is implemented by adenilatziklaznuu mechanism. So the cell is exposed to hormones (adrenaline, noradrenaline) and some drugs with a hydrophilic structure.

The Second mechanism of information transfer is internal. It is characteristic of lipophilic molecules - corticosteroids. This substance penetrates through silipigno the cell membrane to the nucleus where it interacts with its receptor. As a result of activation of receptor complexes located on the cell membrane (adenilatziklaznuu mechanism) or on the karyolemma, start the reaction activation of a particular gene. It replicated, on the basis of constructed RNA. Later on the structure of the last synthesized protein that performs some function.

The Core of multicellular organisms

In multicellular organism peculiarities of the nuclear structure are the same as in unicellular. Although there are some nuances. First, mnogoletnei implies that the number of cells will be allocated its own specific function (or several). This means that some genes are permanently despiralization, while others are inactive.

Biology structure of the nucleus

For example, in the cells of adipose tissue protein synthesis will go inactive, and therefore a large part of the chromatin spiralizatia. And in cells,...

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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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