Types of worms: description, structure, their role in nature

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2018-03-26 11:17:20

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There are three main types of worms: Flat, Round and Ringed. Each of them is divided into classes, in which are combined the types of worms by similarity of certain features. In this article we will describe types and classes. We also touch on some of their types. You will learn basic information about worms: their structure, characteristics, role in nature.

Flat worms

worms

The Representatives of his live in sea and fresh waters, in tropical forests (wet litter). These are different types of worms-parasites. They differ in the shape of the body. Flat leaf dvustoronnyaya or ribbon-shaped body has a flat worm. The species belonging to this type have muscular, integumentary, excretory, digestive, reproductive, nervous systems develop from 3 germ layer (inner, outer and middle layers of cells). In total there are over 12 thousand species of them. Basic classes: Flukes, Planaria, tapeworms.

Class Planarian

Black, brown, and white planaria live in muddy areas of ponds, lakes and streams. At the front end of the body they have a noticeable 2 eye, by which they distinguish light from darkness. SIP is located on the ventral side. Planaria are carnivores. They prey on small aquatic animals, which are torn apart or swallowed whole. They move thanks to the work of cilia. From 1 to 3 inches is the body length of freshwater planarians.

The Body is covered with elongated cells with special cilia (which is why they are known as ciliated worms). Located deeper than 3 layers of muscle fibers-diagonal, circular and longitudinal. The worm (a species belonging to the planarians) because of their relaxation and contraction is shortened or lengthened, can lift parts of the body. A mass of small cells is under the muscle. This is the main fabric, which is the internal organs. With mouth, muscular pharynx, and traversity the intestines make up the digestive system. The intestinal wall is formed a layer of flask-shaped cells. They capture particles of food and then digest them. Secrete digestive enzymes into the cavity of the intestine glandular cells of its walls. Nutrients resulting from the digestion of food, penetrate directly into the tissues of the body. Through the mouth undigested residues are removed.

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worm species

Ciliated worms breathe oxygen dissolved in water. This process is done through the body surface. The nervous system consists of clusters of cells – the head of the pair of nodes, nerve trunks, departing from them, as well as the nerve branches. Planarian mostly have eyes (1 to a few tens of pairs). In the skin they are tactile cells, and some representatives of this class are at the front end of the body has a small pair of tentacles.

Class Flukes

It includes types of worms are parasites, which have leaf-shaped body without cilia. The most famous representative of this class is the liver Fluke. About 3 cm is the length of its body. This worm lives in bile ducts of liver of sheep, cows and goats, holding in place with okolorotova and ventral suckers. He feeds on the blood and destroy the cells of the organ of his master. Have liver Fluke is pharynx, mouth, duversity the intestines and other organ systems. Of these, the nerve and muscle is not developed as much as in free-living flatworms.

Class tapeworms

It includes the parasitic worms that have the ribbon-like body, which consists of undifferentiated short neck, small head and a plurality of segments. The most famous types of tapeworms – porcine and bovine capni, Echinococcus, a tapeworm. Where I live these organisms? Bovine and porcine apni live in the human intestine, tapeworm – wolves and dogs, and a tapeworm is a parasite in the body of carnivorous mammals and humans. Cepni can reach a length of ten meters and even more (for example, bovine). These types of tapeworms on the head has hooks and suckers (tapeworm, pork tapeworm), or only the suction pad (bovine tapeworm), or 2 pressively deep grooves (for example, broad tapeworm).

The Nervous and muscular system of this class are poorly developed. Skin cells presented by their senses. They have gone of the digestive system: tapeworms absorb nutrients from the intestine of the host the entire surface of his body.

Echinococcus

types of tapeworms

Echinococcus – is a small worm, whose length is up to 6 mm. It is notable that the segments are not separated from his body, unlike lentetsov and tapeworms. The main hosts of this worm – wolf, dog, cat, Fox; intermediate – cow, sheep, pig, deer, goat (can be also). In the lungs, liver, bones, muscles latest develop large bubbles. Each of them are formed vocatie and subsidiary offices. Inside them there are the heads of parasites. Major hosts can get infected when eating meat from these bubbles, and intermediate – after eating food that is contaminated with feces of sick wolves, dogs, and other major hosts of this worm.

Type of Round worms (or Pervichnopolostnyh)

They have unsegmented body, usually long, round cross-section. This is the mainthe similarity of the roundworms different types. On the surface of their skin has a dense non-cellular formation, called the cuticle. They have the body has a cavity, which exists due to the destruction of cells that make up the bulk tissue between the internal organs and the body wall. Muscles their is a layer of longitudinal fibers. That is why round worms can only bend. Their intestine has the form of a tube. He starts mouth opening and ends with anal (anal). The representatives of this type inhabit the seas, the soil, in freshwater ponds. The distinction roundworms different types is that some of them are pests of plants, others are parasitic in humans and animals. More than 400 thousand species there are in this type. The largest class is the class of Nematodes.

Class Nematodes

the earthworms

Nematodes-plant-eating worms that live on the roots of beans, garlic, onions and other garden plants, in underground shoots of the potato (kind of potato Stem nematode)in the organs of strawberry (the strawberry Nematode). About 1.5 mm is the length of their almost transparent bodies. Mouthparts piercing-type nematodes penetrate plant tissue, and then administered substance solvent content and the cell wall. Then they suck the substance formed, using extended part of the esophagus. As the pump operate its muscular wall. In the intestine food is digested. Many nematodes live in the ground and used as food residues. They play an important role in soil formation.

Some representatives of this class are parasites. They live in the host body (human and animal). This, for example, roundworm (pig, horse, human, etc.), Trichinella, pinworms, vlasoglav, Guinea worm.

Roundworm

types of worms photos

Ascarids live in the small intestine of the host. 40 inches is the body length of females (males are smaller). They feed on half-digested food. Females lay eggs (about 200 pieces per day), which are ejected from human feces. Them in the external environment develop motile larvae. By eating poorly washed vegetables and are also favored by flies the food is the infection of man with Ascaris. Larvae in the intestines of the host come out of eggs. Then they are introduced into the blood vessels and them migrate to the lungs, heart and liver. Grown larvae fall into the mouth, then the intestine, which become adults. They feed on food of host, the organism which poison their secretions. As a result of their activities on the walls of the intestinal ulcers, and when a large number of parasites can occur it obstruction and rupture of the walls.

Annelid worms

Its representatives live in fresh water, seas, and soil. The body of their long, divided into annular segments (segments) transverse constrictions. We all know the appearance of earthworms. Their length ranges from 2 to 30 cm. the Body is divided into segments, which can be from 80 to 300.

types of annelid worms

Internal segmentation corresponds to the outer partition. The body cavity of the representatives of this type is lined with a layer of epithelial cells. Delimited portion of this cavity is located in each segment. Do annelids have a circulatory system, and many of them there and breathing. Their digestive, muscular, nervous, excretory system and sense organs is more advanced than the round and flat worms. “Skin” consists of a layer of epithelial cells. Under it there are longitudinal and annular muscles. Annelids have a digestive system into the throat, mouth, esophagus, stomach (in selected populations), as well as the intestines. Through the anus removes out undigested remnants of food.

The Circulatory system of annelids

All kinds of annelids have a circulatory system formed by the ventral and dorsal blood vessels, which are connected to each other ring. The latter depart from the small vessels that branch and form a network of capillaries in the internal organs and the skin. Blood moves mainly through the relaxation and contraction covering the esophagus the walls of the annular vessel. It carries oxygen and nutrients flowing to all organs, and frees the body from metabolic waste products. The types of annelids are characterized by a closed circulatory system (this biological fluid is within the vessel and not poured out into the cavity of the body). Through the skin is breathing. Some types of worms (sea) have gills.

Nervous system of annelid worms

The Nervous system in representatives of this type consists of paired podglotočnogo and number of neural nodes, which are connected to the ring nerve strands and nodes of the chain (the abdominal). Tied node is located in each segment of annelids. To all bodies depart nerves. Various stimuli (e.g., light) effect on sensitive cells. The excitation arising in them is transferred to the nearest ganglion along the nerve fibers and then to the muscles (other fibers) and causes their contraction. In this way reflexes are. Most representatives of this type of sensesno.

Main classes of annelids

The Ring can be a hermaphrodite, and dioecious. How many worms (species) includes this type? Today, there are about 9 thousand, among which are the basic classes: Polychaete and Oligochaete. First live primarily in the soil (for example, the appearance of earthworms as Norns), as well as in fresh water (particularly the makers). Polychaetes-a class that includes sandworms, Nereid and serpula. Sandworms live in burrows dug by them, Nereids – mostly in muddy ground, in littoral parts of the seas, serpula – “cottages” they are built of different material.

Nereid

how many types of worms

Nereid – types of worms that are most diverse in the seas. Their color is green or reddish. The head form the anterior segments of the body. She has the palpi, mouth, tentacles (tactile organs) as well as 2 pairs of eyelets and 2 holes behind them (the sense organs). The segments on the sides of the body are paired muscular outgrowths of the short lobe with tufts of bristles. It's limbs. In addition, the Nereids are developing gills – special outgrowths of the skin. It is often dioecious animals. In the water fertilization of eggs, from which free-swimming larvae, with a belt of cilia. They eventually grow into adult worms.

The Value of annelids

They are food for many species of crabs, fish (Nereid and marine worms, etc.). Earthworms – this is the main food of hedgehogs, moles, starlings, frogs and other animals. Annelid feeding on mud, as well as a variety of suspensions, clear water of excess organic substances. In addition, rain and some other soil species earthworms eat plant remains and pass the soil through their intestines. They contribute to the formation of humus.

You should now be familiar with the above classification, to find out about what are the types, classes, and types of worms. Photo from this article provide a visual representation of some of their representatives. Worms – they are rather a kind of living organisms. Some of them are parasites, while others greatly benefit the planet.

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