A Variety of bacterial infections requires the clear identification of the causative organism and determine its species. To determine the type of microorganism, microbiologists help its tinctorial properties - susceptibility of a microbe to staining by various dyes. This method allows us to study the morphology of the pathogen. Tinctorial properties of bacteria are of great importance for practical and theoretical research in the field of Microbiology.
In bacteriology, there are many methods of staining microorganisms. They are all based on tinctorial properties of bacteria. Staining allows you to determine their shape, structure, size, and relative position. This allows us to solve the problem of sistematizirovany types of microorganisms General biology and comparative Microbiology.
Bacteria – it is almost transparent organisms, without the use of staining they are not visible to conventional microscopy. You can use special types of microscopy (phase-contrast, dark-field) to examine the objects, but the easiest way is painting, after which the bacteria become visible in an ordinary light microscope.
Regardless of the applied technique of staining, there are unified rules for the preparation of the object. Mandatory are the steps:
The Most commonly used dyes based on aniline with different values of acidic indicators (pH). Most dyes-powders, which are diluted in alcohol.
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Colorants in which the coloring agents are cations, is called a basic (pH greater than 7). They can be used to stain microorganisms in red (fuchsin, safranin), purple (methylviolet, thionin), blue (methylene blue), green (malachite green), brown (chrysoidin) and black (indulin) color.
Colorants in which the coloring agents are anions, are called acidic (pH less than 7). They'll paint sample in red (eosin), yellow (ecrin) or black (nigrosine) color.
There are a group of neutral dyes (e.g., rhodamine), where coloring agents are cations and anions.
Colouring Techniques are divided into two groups according to life form the test specimen.
These are the characteristics of bacteria can be found in the instructions for different medicines. This method of study of the tinctorial properties of bacteria based on the use of gentianeae purple dye and fixation of the iodine. This technique by Hans Christian gram, a Danish physician, who proposed it in 1884. As a result of this staining, bacteria are divided into two groups:
Different colour result is obtained due to the uneven tinctorial properties of the walls of the bacteria. The staining method and the gram is today the main in the diagnosis of some infectious diseases.
Give a characterization several techniques that are widely used in bacteriology.
Staining puccino Celia allows you to see the spores of the bacteria. After coloring with the color pink, they are clearly visible against the blue of bacteria. This method alsois a tool of bacteriology and is of great practical importance.
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