Tinctorial properties are the basis of microscopy of bacteria


2018-03-28 16:46:14




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A Variety of bacterial infections requires the clear identification of the causative organism and determine its species. To determine the type of microorganism, microbiologists help its tinctorial properties - susceptibility of a microbe to staining by various dyes. This method allows us to study the morphology of the pathogen. Tinctorial properties of bacteria are of great importance for practical and theoretical research in the field of Microbiology.

the Microorganisms in the Petri dish

The Study of microbes

In bacteriology, there are many methods of staining microorganisms. They are all based on tinctorial properties of bacteria. Staining allows you to determine their shape, structure, size, and relative position. This allows us to solve the problem of sistematizirovany types of microorganisms General biology and comparative Microbiology.

What to paint

Bacteria – it is almost transparent organisms, without the use of staining they are not visible to conventional microscopy. You can use special types of microscopy (phase-contrast, dark-field) to examine the objects, but the easiest way is painting, after which the bacteria become visible in an ordinary light microscope.

Sample Preparation

Regardless of the applied technique of staining, there are unified rules for the preparation of the object. Mandatory are the steps:

  • Sterile tools is smear on a glass slide.
  • Sample is dried. This is done at room temperature or using ovens.
  • Next there is the step of fixing – special compounds microorganisms attached to the glass.
  • Actually staining – the sample is covered with dye for a fixed period of time, after which it is washed off.
  • Final drying – the sample is again dried.
    tinctorial properties

The Most common dyes

The Most commonly used dyes based on aniline with different values of acidic indicators (pH). Most dyes-powders, which are diluted in alcohol.


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Colorants in which the coloring agents are cations, is called a basic (pH greater than 7). They can be used to stain microorganisms in red (fuchsin, safranin), purple (methylviolet, thionin), blue (methylene blue), green (malachite green), brown (chrysoidin) and black (indulin) color.

Colorants in which the coloring agents are anions, are called acidic (pH less than 7). They'll paint sample in red (eosin), yellow (ecrin) or black (nigrosine) color.

There are a group of neutral dyes (e.g., rhodamine), where coloring agents are cations and anions.

properties of bacteria

Culture is alive or dead

Colouring Techniques are divided into two groups according to life form the test specimen.

  • Vital (in vivo) staining. This method to study properties of microorganisms used in the study of living tissues, that allows to observe the life processes of microbes. For this coloring uses dyes with low toxicity and high penetrating power.
  • Postitalo staining. It is painting dead, or of dead microorganisms. Thanks to the tinctorial properties of bacteria, microbiologists determine their structure. It is the most widely used coloring.
types of microorganisms

Gram-positive and gram-negative

These are the characteristics of bacteria can be found in the instructions for different medicines. This method of study of the tinctorial properties of bacteria based on the use of gentianeae purple dye and fixation of the iodine. This technique by Hans Christian gram, a Danish physician, who proposed it in 1884. As a result of this staining, bacteria are divided into two groups:

  • Gram (+) – turn blue (staphylococci and streptococci).
  • Gram (-) – turn the color from pink to red (enterobacteria, Salmonella, Escherichia coli).

Different colour result is obtained due to the uneven tinctorial properties of the walls of the bacteria. The staining method and the gram is today the main in the diagnosis of some infectious diseases.

Other methods of dyeing

Give a characterization several techniques that are widely used in bacteriology.

  • Method Ziehl-Nelson – determines the acid resistance of the bacteria. It reveals the causative agents of tuberculosis and mycobacteriosis.
  • The Method Romanovsky-Giemsa-stain acidophilic (acetic acid and lactic acid) bacteria in red and basophilic (spirochetes and protozoa) – blue.
  • Technique Morozov – stain bacteria in brown color and makes them visible flagella.

Can see arguments

Staining puccino Celia allows you to see the spores of the bacteria. After coloring with the color pink, they are clearly visible against the blue of bacteria. This method alsois a tool of bacteriology and is of great practical importance.

Article in other languages:

AR: https://tostpost.com/ar/education/2771-tinctorial.html

BE: https://tostpost.com/be/adukacyya/4912-tinktorial-nye-lasc-vasc---asnova-mikroskopirovaniya-bakteryy.html

DE: https://tostpost.com/de/bildung/4911-tinktorial-nye-eigenschaften---die-basis-der-mikroskopie-von-bakterien.html

ES: https://tostpost.com/es/la-educaci-n/4916-tinktorial-nye-de-la-propiedad-de-la-base-de-la-mikroskopirovaniya-de-.html

HI: https://tostpost.com/hi/education/2772-tinctorial.html

JA: https://tostpost.com/ja/education/2771-tinctorial.html

KK: https://tostpost.com/kk/b-l-m/4914-tinktorial-nye-asiet---neg-z-mikroskopirovaniya-bakteriyalar.html

PL: https://tostpost.com/pl/edukacja/4916-tinktorial-nye-w-a-ciwo-ci---podstawa-mikroskopirovaniya-bakterii.html

PT: https://tostpost.com/pt/educa-o/4913-tinktorial-nye-de-propriedade---a-base-de-bact-rias-mikroskopirovaniya.html

TR: https://tostpost.com/tr/e-itim/4919-tinktoryal-zellikleri-zellikleri---temeli-mikroskopirovaniya-bakteri.html

UK: https://tostpost.com/uk/osv-ta/4915-tinktorial-nye-vlastivost---osnova-m-kroskopuvannya-bakter-y.html

ZH: https://tostpost.com/zh/education/2991-tinctorial-properties-are-the-basis-of-microscopy-of-bacteria.html

Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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