Plastic exchange, its essence and role in the body

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2018-03-18 02:50:51

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Plastic exchange is still called anabolism or assimilation is the sum of all enzymatic biochemical reactions, which are synthesized bio-organic compounds.

Plastic exchange involves the biosynthesis of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. If anabolism is the process of photosynthesis and chemosynthesis.

If we talk about plastic metabolism in the human body, then immediately I must say that all of the nutrients that enter the body with food, have a macromolecular structure, so cannot be absorbed. In the process of digestion of these compounds break up into individual monomers, which are already used for the synthesis of specific macromolecular substances in the human body.

One of the most important classes of compounds are proteins. A protein nature have all the body's enzymes and some hormones. Proteins are hemoglobin (provides respiratory function), antibodies (immune response of the body), actin and myosin (determine muscle contraction), collagen and keratin (the structural function in the body).

Given the important role of protein for the functioning of the body, it is necessary to consider the process of their synthesis as an important part of plastic exchange.

I Must say that all organisms differ among themselves by the presence of specific proteins that consist of amino acids. It is the relative positions of the amino acids determines the specific properties of the protein sequence.

Proteins are synthesized in the cell cytoplasm in special organelles - ribosomes. These structures consist of large and small subunits. They participate in the processes of protein synthesis. An important role in protein biosynthesis play nucleic acids, which include DNA and RNA. Thus, the structural units of DNA (genes) contain coded information about the primary structure of proteins (amino acid sequence), and RNA is responsible for its sensing and transport of amino acids to the place where the protein synthesis.

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Protein Synthesis occurs in two stages: transcription and translation. Based transcription is a process of transfer of information about protein structure from DNA to RNA.

Translation is the direct synthesis of the polypeptide chain with the corresponding amino acid sequence according to the genetic code, with the participation matrix (information) RNA. The whole process of translation goes through three stages: initiation, elongation, terminaali. As a result of the translation is formed from the primary protein structure.

It is Worth remembering that plastic is not only the synthesis of proteins or other organic compounds, but also photosynthesis, which is a complex and multistage process, it takes place in 2 phases.

The Light phase takes place in the chloroplasts (thylakoid), forming ATP and released molecular oxygen, and the dark phase takes place in the main substance of the chloroplasts causes the absorption of carbon dioxide and formation of carbohydrates.

I do not need to elaborate on the role of photosynthesis, suffice it to say that due to this process, annually produce about 150 billion tons of organic substances in nature and also about 200 billion tons of oxygen.

I Must say that plastic exchange is closely associated with energy processes that occur in the body. Thus, energy metabolism (catabolism) is the opposite process of anabolism and includes all of the cleavage reaction when a complex substance disintegrate on simple and high-molecular substances into low molecular weight range. This releases energy that is used in the processes of plastic exchange.

So, plastic and energy metabolism in the cell are the basis of the General exchange of metabolism, which includes all processes of synthesis and decomposition of substances.


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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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