History is our past. She talks about all the events and facts that accompanied our ancestors. The science dealing with the study of past events, why they happened, and finding out the truth. Basic data and results obtained from the stored documents describing specific incidents.
The Historical process, according to Kliuchevsky, a set of success conditions and the course of human existence or human life in General in its development and results.
The word "process" is a consecutive change of conditions in the course of development of any phenomenon.
The Basis of the historical process, of course, are the events. It is they that embody any activity of individuals and mankind as a whole. Also there are political, economic, social and cultural ties and relations between individuals.
The Subjects of the historical process - is the person or organisation of people who are directly involved in certain events. Such organizations may be social community who live in the same area and have the same mentality, culture and traditions. The result of their activities will be to create a total for each individual material and spiritual values.
Social groups may differ in age, sexual, professional, or religious differences, but they should have signs that connects them. Such groups are, for example, class, state and the different classes of the population.
The subjects include individuals who were directly involved in historical events. Most of those I consider political figures, monarchs, kings, presidents. A huge contribution to the historical process of making figures of culture, art and science.
From the point of view of K. Marx and F. Engels, the historical process must be seen as a doctrine of socio-economic formations, which are the steps of this process. The decisive factor in the development of a society's mode of production. That is, the ratio of the development of forces of production and relations of production. While the policy structure and spiritual development are only a superstructure, which depends on production methods. Separate facts and events - the results of the social revolution that occurred in the collision of opposing interests between classes. K. Marx and F. Engels considered the historical process through the prism of communism, which is the ultimate goal.
Proponents of the theory of postindustrial society is also talking about speed the development of mankind from diagramoje to post-industrial society.
Based on the theory of modernization, society has been developed as a result of the transition from traditional specific relationship to the formal-rational. The most important features of the society include individual personal freedom, freedom of economic activity, the inviolability of human rights, rule of law and political pluralism.
There is also the opposite formational and civilizational approach. Supporters of linear-stage theory in favor of the definition of the criteria for the stages-stages in the system of cultural values.
According to the theory of local civilizations (one of the branches of the civilizational approach), the periodization of the historical process can not be based on the allocation of stages-stages. The founder of this direction is Arnold Toynbee. In his scientific writings he divides world history into history of individual civilizations, each of which separately passes through all stages (from inception to breakdown and decomposition). And only their totality is the world historical process.
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