Anatomy of the hip joint: structure, muscles, ligaments


2019-06-12 07:00:30




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Our mother nature – engineer with unique abilities. In any human body nothing is superfluous – any body or body part are important elements of the entire body. Without them we would not be able to fully exist on earth. Any system deserves responsible attention, including musculoskeletal. This kind of frame, which hold almost all organs, in connection with which the anatomy of the hip joint must be known to each of us.

What is a hip joint?

The Movement – it is life, and hardly anyone is going to challenge this statement. Rather agree with him by any person. It is due to the presence of the hip joint connects the upper body with the lower limbs. The joint is characterized by great mobility in almost any direction. Thanks to him we move, adopt the sitting position and can perform other movements.

Anatomy of the hip joint

The Hip joint is the strongest part of the skeletal system, since it sees more load when we do a run, just committed a leisurely stroll or rushing to work. And so throughout life. You can guess that if there is any pathology of the rolling stock this could lead to different consequences: from mild to the most severe. Not everyone will be happy with the prospect of being chained to the bed for a long time.

Joint Structure

Anatomy of the hip joint is formed by connecting the pelvic and femoral bones, and it is shaped like a bowl. More precisely, it represents the Union of the acetabulum of the pelvic bone and the femoral head with the help of ligaments and cartilage, which is a lot. Moreover, the femoral head is immersed in this basin more than half.


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Very deep, and most cases of joint hyaline cartilage. And the places in which the muscles associated with the joint is covered with cellulose on the basis of loose tissue. Inside the pelvic cavity is present in the connective tissue surrounded by synovial fluid.

the Structure of the hip joint anatomy

This bone the skeleton has a unique structure. Because having the ability to withstand a greater load, he has good strength. However, it does have some weak spots. Inside acetabulum is lined with connective tissue, which runs the blood vessels and nerve endings.

Function and motor task

Anatomy of the hip joint provides superior motor function for humans – walking, running and so on. Freedom of movement is observed in any plane or direction. In addition, the skeletal frame keeps the whole body in the desired position, forming a correct posture.

The Joint allows for flexion and extension of the person. Moreover, the bending does not restricted, with the exception of the abdominal muscles, and the angle can be up to 122 degrees. But to straighten up only to an angle of 13 degrees. While ilio-femoral ligament, stretching, slowing down movement. Further backward movement has involved the lower back.

The Joint also provides external and internal hip rotation motion about a vertical axis. Normal rotation angle is 40-50 degrees.

Due to the globular structure (the anatomy of the hip joint differs in this characteristic), it becomes possible to make the rotation of the pelvis relative to the lower extremities. The optimal amplitude is determined based on the size of the wings of the Ilium, the greater trochanter and the angle of the two axes (vertical and lateral) of the thigh. It all depends on the angle of the femoral neck, which changes as they grow older person. Therefore, it affects the change of gait of people.

Hip joint human anatomyAnatomy of the femur and the hip joint

Thus, it is possible to allocate the basic functions of the hip joint:

  • The main support for the pelvis;
  • Provide a bone connection;
  • The ability to bend and straighten the limbs;
  • Abstraction, bringing the legs;
  • Movement of the limbs in and out.
  • The possibility of circular rotation of the hip.

Even on the Basis of this we can understand how important this joint for our body.


For the implementation of the main functions of responsible ligament of the hip joint. Human anatomy consists of several types. Each of them has its own name:

  • Ilio-femoral (lig. iliofemorale);
  • Pubic-femoral ligament (lig. pubofemorale);
  • Sciatic-femoral (lig. ischiofemorale);
  • Ligament of the femoral head (lig. capitis femoris).

It All formed into a single system, which allows you to make different movements.

Ilio-femoral ligament

Throughout the body it is the most strong, because it takes the entire load. Its thickness - not more than 0.8-10 mm. Ligament originates at the top of the joint and continues to the bottom, touching the thigh bone. In form it resembles a fan in the open state.

Ligaments of the hip joint anatomy

The Bundle is so arranged that in its absence the thigh just curled inside that whenthe movement would create some difficulties. It iliac-femoral ligament protects the joint from turning.

Pubic-femoral ligament

Thin fibers, collected into a bundle, form the ligament, through which performs its function the hip joint. The human anatomy is not only strong, but also weak ligaments. Pubic part of the pelvis is the beginning chords. Then she goes down to the thighs, where is the small trochanter, and right to the vertical axis. From the point of view of size it is the smallest and weakest of the ligaments of the hip joint.

The Main task of the ligaments is to provide braking of the withdrawal of the femur during the motion of the person.

Sciatic-femoral ligament

The Location of the sciatic-femoral ligament is the back side of the joint. Its source falls on the front surface of the ischium of the pelvic bone. Fiber not only grasping her hip, but some of them passes through the joint capsule. The rest of the fibers attached to the femur near the greater trochanter. The main task – to slow down the movement of the thigh inward.

Ligament of the femoral head

This bundle does not have the majority of the load, as in this place the special structure of the hip joint. Anatomy of the ligaments enables the blood vessels heading from the femoral head and the nerve endings located between the fibers. The bundle structure similar to spongy tissue that is covered by the synovial membrane. It is in the joint cavity begins from the depth of the acetabulum pelvis and ends in a recess in the head of the femur.

Bags hip joint anatomy

The Strength of the bundle is different, and so can easily be stretched. In this connection, it is easy to damage. Despite this, ensures a strong connection of bones and muscles during movement. While inside the joint in a cavity which fills this ligament with synovial fluid. Creates a so-called spacer, and thereby increases the strength. Without this ligament, to avoid strong rotation of the hip to the outside.


Without tangles would be impossible to realize a reliable connection of bones with each other. However, apart from them, an important role is played by muscles of the hip joint. Anatomy of fibers has a rather massive structure, which ensures proper operation of the joint. In the course of committing a human of any movement, whether running or walking, the muscle fibers act as shock absorbers. That is, they are able to reduce the load on bones during run, jump, and in case of unsuccessful fall.

Due to the fact that muscles contract and relax, we performed different movements. A certain group of muscle fibers has a greater length and may begin with the area of the spine. Thanks to these muscles are not restricted to movement in the joint, we can tilt your body. The muscles on the front of the thigh responsible for bending it, and the rear group – for an extension. The medial group is responsible for the removal and drive the hips.

Articular handbags

In Addition to ligaments that are important and bags are hip joint. Anatomy their is a cavity, which is lined by connective tissue and filled with synovial fluid. Like muscles, the bag also can act as a shock absorber by preventing friction between the layers of tissue. This reduces the wear and tear. There are several types of handbags:

  • Iliac scalloping;
  • Trochanteric;
  • Sciatic.

When inflammation or wear one of them there is a disease called bursitis. This pathology is quite common and affects a person at any age. Bursitis is often diagnosed in women, especially after 40 years. In men, the disease is less common.

Muscles of the hip joint anatomy

The Main muscles are the femoral and gluteal, which should be constantly developed. Reasonable load on this muscle machine will allow it to strengthen that will minimize the incidence of injuries.

Development of the hip joint in newborns

Due To the peculiarities which distinguish the anatomy of the hip joint in the human body, muscles And joints begin to form at the stage of pregnancy. At the same time on the sixth week, begin to form connective tissue. Starting from the second month you can see the beginnings of a joint that tries to move the embryo. About this time begin to form a bony core. And it is this period and the first year of life are important, as is the formation of skeletal structure.

In some cases, the hip joint fails to develop properly, especially in those cases where the child is born premature. Often this is due to the presence of different pathologies in the mother's body and lack of minerals.

Besides, bone machine small children is still quite soft and fragile. The pelvic bones that form the acetabulum, while still not completely ossified, with cartilaginous layer. The same can be said about the head of the thigh bone. She and part of the neck there is small bone cores, and so are also present in cartilaginous tissue.

Anatomy of the hip joint muscle man

Newborns anatomy of the femur and the hip joint is very unstable. The whole process of the formation of the bones of the joint occurs slowly and ends by the age of 20. If the baby was born prematurely, the kernels will be very small or they do not, which is a pathological deviation. But it can also be observed in completely healthy newborns. Musculoskeletal system in this case is poorly developed. And if during the first year of life the child kernel does not develop, there is a risk that the hip joint will not be able to fully function.

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