How to give first aid for poisoning: what to do

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2019-10-08 07:20:49

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Poisoning in people's lives happen quite often. Their causes are sometimes the most banal – did not finish shelf life on the product packaging, tempted by shiny fat smoked fish, ate questionable quality soup in the dining room, did not pay attention to the odor in the car.

Regardless of the reasons for poisoning, the medical assistance shall be conducted according to certain rules. The first thing is to make the surrounding or the victim (if he has this power) – to call an ambulance. What to do while help is on the way to a call? What is required to render aid in cases of poisoning, if there is no possibility to turn to doctors? Each of us should have an idea on what to do if the organism got hazardous substance.

Poisonous gases

Do Not think that you can't get poisoned because you don't eat the mushrooms, always scrutinize the products ' shelf life, do not have in the house the stove and never visit places of public catering. The world around us, being at the mercy of technological progress, has become much more inhospitable than it was some hundred years ago.

Residents of megacities daily inhale tons of harmful substances, eat on the go, buying something in fast food, happy when was able to purchase cheap products on super special, without hesitation, that the shelf life has expired. But those who care for their health, are not immune from mistakes and carelessness of others. So, in your city, in an industrial enterprise could be a disaster or just a production release in which the atmosphere receives tons of poisonous gases.

If there is an alert about the accident, people should stay home and even closed the window to hang a wet cloth, for example sheets. If you need to move down the street, it is imperative to wear a respirator or at least a mask. If nothing special is not at hand, mouth and nose can be covered with clothing, such as folded several times with a scarf.

Although such situations are extraordinary and very rare, how to give first aid for poisoning, you need to know, because when a large-scale accident can be many, doctors physically will not have time to all affected.

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dangerous chemical emissions

Workers in hazardous jobs can be poisoned with toxic gases without the occurrence of a global catastrophe, for example, with the tightness of storage tanks of chemicals or in violation of the production process. Be poisoned with gas can and at home when performing actions with dangerous chemicals indoors, such as in the garage.

What to do

The Symptoms of poisoning will depend on the type of gas. In some cases, there may occur chemical burns of the larynx and bronchi, spasm of respiratory organs, convulsions and coma. Generalized symptoms may be:

  • Cough.
  • Headache.
  • Sore throat.
  • Tear production.
  • Sneezing, runny nose.
  • Vertigo.
  • Violation of orientation in space.
  • Ringing in the ears.
  • Increased anxiety caused by arising fear.
  • Loss of coordination.

The gas poisoning, the assistance must be provided promptly, because the victim may begin swelling of the lungs, leading to death.

If the gases inhaled by mouth, symptoms may be:

  • The Appearance of a metallic taste.
  • Pain and burning in the throat, in the esophagus, in the stomach.
  • Vomiting blood.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Anuria.
  • Swelling of the larynx.
  • Stop breathing.

In cases of poisoning by formalin, there dermatitis exposed areas of the body (hands, face), eczema, nail infections.

First aid at gas poisoning consists of the following operations:

  • If possible, it is necessary to remove the victim from the danger zone. If this is not possible, you need to shut his face or just the mouth and nose with a wet breathable cloth.
  • Lay them on a flat surface so that his feet were raised.
  • To Hide, to warm.
  • To Give to smell ammonia, if the person lost consciousness.
  • To Wash the eyes and skin on exposed parts of the body soda solution (teaspoon per liter of water).
  • In the formation on the skin burns to impose bandage with antiseptics.
  • When the penetration of gases in the digestive tract to drink a lot of water.

Poisoning by household gas

Do Not think that natural gas with which we cook delicious meals, grass only suicide.

gas poisoning

According to medical statistics, such incidents happen quite often. The most trivial of reasons:

  • On the kitchen tiles “escaped” milk, fire in the burner went out but the gas still came from gas pipes.
  • Children left unattended, turned the handle on the stove (burners included).
  • Older people forgot to turn off the burner, cutting off only the gas in the tube. The next time you use the plate they don't notice that the plate is on, and the gas supplied to the premises.

To reduce exposure to natural gas has added a special flavor with a characteristic odor. Many react to it and rush to the kitchen to check if everything is in order.

If the room isfilled with gas, you should immediately open the house Windows, arranging the draft.

Symptoms:

  • Nausea.
  • Tear production.
  • Headache.
  • CNS Depression.
  • Rapid heart rate.
  • Loss of consciousness

Assistance in cases of poisoning by gas is reduced to such actions:

  • Remove victim to fresh air (in the yard, on the balcony).
  • Loosen the clothes to allow free breathing (to undo the top and next buttons).
  • Lay on its side. It is necessary to do to in case of vomiting, the man drowned.
  • Try to find a pulse. If not, do chest compressions.
  • If the victim is not breathing, give artificial respiration.

Causes of carbon monoxide poisoning, risk groups

Experts call this gas carbon monoxide (CO). It is lighter than air, no odour, no taste, not painted. That is to notice its allocation in the environment is almost impossible. Meanwhile, this gas is extremely toxic. On the hygiene standards the MCL in a cubic meter of air is allowed only 0, 0017% or 20 mg/m3.

symptoms of gas poisoning

In the exhaust gases of cars it should be from 1.5% to 3%. To find out, the relevant authorities are such hated for many drivers check in WITH. Its purpose – find out how many deadly substances the vehicle emit into the environment and which creates a threat to others, that is for all of us. Help with carbon monoxide poisoning should be given immediately, as this condition is very often the victim ends in death.

Risk Group

  • Motorists can get hurt if doing any work with the engine of his car in the closed garage.
  • Carbon monoxide poisoned people for a long time near busy motorways, where MPC is exceeded OVER several times.
  • Residents, owners of summer houses that use Central heating.
  • In case of fire, especially in cases when there is decay of items which typically get less attention than an open fire.
  • In production, WITH use in the process.
  • People who are in areas not equipped with adequate ventilation, where used gas stoves and other equipment with open combustion.

Many will be surprised to learn that grass, even Smoking a hookah, if the unit isn't getting enough oxygen. The smoker may feel nausea, drowsiness, headache, dizziness. Help with carbon monoxide poisoning in this case is to provide the person fresh air. The victim can be put on the street, give him to drink a Cup of coffee.

If the room is only 0,08%, people experience shortness of breath. At the concentration of 0.1% person dies within the hour. At a concentration of 0.32% within 30 minutes, and if contains 1.2% - enough to make a couple of breaths to die.

The danger WITH This is that the body, it forms a very strong connection with hemoglobin, blocking oxygen flow to cells and organs.

Help with carbon monoxide poisoning

Note that this state may have several degrees.

Light is characterized by these symptoms:

  • Slight nausea.
  • Weak but obsessive headache, pulsation in temples.
  • Blurred vision, pain in the eyes.
  • Vomiting.
  • Shortness of breath during physical activity of medium intensity.
  • Dry cough
  • Loss of coordination.
  • Suffocation.
  • Raising HELL.
  • Chest Pain.

Even mild poisoning can be fatal for cardiac patients, hypertensive patients and fetus in the womb.

The Victim immediately need to get to a place where there is fresh air, warm, give to drink strong tea or coffee.

With moderate to above-mentioned symptoms are added:

  • Ringing in the ears.
  • Drowsiness.
  • Paralysis (the person may be conscious).
  • Hallucinations.
  • “Fly” in front of the eyes.
  • Convulsions.
  • Stupor.
  • Breathing Difficulties.
  • Tachycardia, arrhythmia.
  • Redness of the skin.

Before the ambulance arrives, the patient is required to move to fresh air, unbutton clothing, RUB the chest, the limbs, give to smell ammonia (if the person has lost consciousness).

For severe poisoning WITH characteristic:

  • Thready pulse.
  • Convulsions.
  • Coma.
  • Lack of response to the light with open eyes.
  • An Involuntary discharge of urine and feces.
  • Cyanosis of skin and mucous membranes.
  • Shortness of breath or lack of it.

In this case, the relief from carbon monoxide poisoning should be performed by physicians. The victim must quickly be connected to an oxygen pillow to be injected intramuscularly, the drug “Azizol”.

At the scene before paramedics arrived need to try to ensure a breath of fresh air. If necessary to carry out resuscitation (artificial respiration and indirect heart massage).

Food poisoning

This is not insured by any one person. You can get poisoned by eating something stale. Some sellers and caterers to sell expired products, flavored with plenty of spices. If you were offered just such a pie, kebab or any other dish, think, isif it is. Very often poisoned adults and children expired dairy products. This is the “sin” kefir, yogurt, cheese, i.e. the products that are in good condition can be acidic.

food poisoning

Another very dangerous product, frequently causing food poisoning, is fish – herring, smoked, cured.

Doubt should cause unusual color of the product, not its inherent turbidity, sediment texture, a suspicious smell and taste, the release of bubbles while mixing.

The threat expired products? First of all, the fact that they begin to multiply pathogenic microorganisms. It their metabolic products cause intoxication. So help with food poisoning should be given the fact that the person has a bacterial infection.

Symptoms may depend on the type of microbe. Among them, the most frequent pathogenic Escherichia coli, Proteus, Bacillus saguaro, enterococci, botulinum coli, Staphylococcus and others. Some of them can become deadly, so in any case can not be there to cause doubt and expired food products, even if their appearance is quite acceptable. This is the only preventive measure against food poisoning.

But this problem can occur when you eat fresh food that contains dangerous chemical substances. Poisoning is required if the person is used:

  • Edible mushrooms.
  • Agricultural products containing nitrates, pesticides.
  • Collected along the roads are edible mushrooms, herbs, berries, which has absorbed hazardous chemicals.
  • The Gifts of nature, gathered near the cemetery, clarifiers, chemical industries. Dangerous fish from polluted waters. In this and previous cases, the poisoning is due to accumulation in living organisms, heavy metal salts, cyclic hydrocarbons, nitrites, nitrosamines and other toxic substances.

Few people know that there are species of fish, where certain parts of the body become poisonous during certain months. The same property, under certain conditions, have some food. These include:

  • ROE of barbel (barb).
  • The Blowfish.
  • In some months, the eggs and milt are burbot, pike, as well as liver mackerel and cod.
  • Sprouted or green potatoes.
  • Raw string beans.
  • The Bitter kernels of apricots, plums, almonds.
  • Moldy bread, muffins (even if bad sectors crop, and of the missing bread to fry croutons).

Aid for food poisoning

The Symptoms of food poisoning can vary, depending on the used product. Common are:

  • Sudden acute onset.
  • Sharp abdominal pain.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Nausea (sometimes it provoke even the most harmless odors, and light movements such as turning from back to side).
  • Vomiting (if the poisoning was a little more time in the vomit will be present pieces of food).
  • Malaise.
  • Chills.
  • Headache.
  • Trembling limbs.
  • High temperature (sometimes not always).
  • Bloating.
  • Sweat.
  • Decrease in blood pressure.

It is Important to note that in cases of poisoning by food containing botulinum coli, the first symptoms may be only a few days, when the pathogen will contribute to the work of the organs and systems changes that are incompatible with life.

symptoms of mushroom poisoning

In this patient, simultaneously with the above signs of intoxication there are problems with eyesight and hearing, dryness of the mucous membranes in the mouth, “mesh”, a mist before his eyes, muscle weakness (hard to hold the head in normal position), flatulence. Further develop strabismus, ptosis on one or both eyes, anisocoria (different pupil diameter), atony.

At the onset of symptoms during the day help with food poisoning consists of the following operations:

  • Gastric Lavage. The victim was forced to drink large amounts of water (you can add potassium permanganate, making a pinkish solution), then cause vomiting. If the person refuses to drink voluntarily, such as a child, he poured the liquid forcibly. The procedure is repeated until the vomit will not only consist of drinking water.
  • Receive enterosorbents. Suitable ‘Effective’, ‘Remedy”, familiar, activated charcoal ‘Polisorbat”, “Karboran” and analogues.
  • Reception of hidrotehnika. Because of the large fluid loss due to diarrhea and vomiting therapy, “Regidrona”, “Orality”, “Gidrotehnika”, “Maravita”, “Resolute” and other gidrotehnika. You can prepare this remedy alone, having dissolved in a liter of water a teaspoon of salt without slides and a little less than a tablespoon of sugar.
  • Warm the patient. After gastric lavage a person need to hide a warm blanket.

Is Strictly prohibited “treatment” alcoholic tinctures, antibiotics, Antidiarrhoeal agents.

Remember, only professional medical assistance in cases of poisoning by botulinum products with sticks can save a person. In hospital the victim should clean the digestive tract from the remnants of the toxins, holdintestinal dialysis, to introduce antitoxic serum, carry out oxygenation to prevent hypoxia. In some cases perform a range of resuscitation. To provide such a treatment at home is impossible.

Mushrooms and berries

Worldwide each year die dozens of people who ate poisonous mushrooms. The most dangerous of them is pale toadstool, which many inexperienced mushroom pickers mistaken for Agaricus. This mushroom is so poisonous that a quarter of the cap on the pot to die. Also poisonous is the Amanita, galerina, the, talkie Tina whitish, pautinki, entoloma, silverfish. In different regions they can have other names.

mushroom poisoning

Improper handling of hazardous be conditionally edible mushrooms, and in violation of the terms of storage – edible. Help in mushroom poisoning depends on how quickly the symptoms started. However, in any case required to immediately call an ambulance. Particularly difficult to tolerate poisoning of children, pregnant women, people weakened by diseases. For them, the outcome can be very sad.

Poisonous berries herbs mostly children. Danger wolf berries, take for currant, Lily of the valley, Euonymus, and others. To avoid this, you need to monitor their kids and explain to them what you can eat and what not to even try.

First aid

The Symptoms of poisoning may occur a few hours after a meal, but can not give themselves a day or more. The victim, eating the pale toadstool, or mushroom smelly, observed:

  • Hard unbearable abdominal pain.
  • Drooling.
  • Watery eyes.
  • Painful nausea.
  • Multiple diarrhea.
  • Vomiting.
  • Constriction of the pupils.
  • Headache.
  • Bradycardia
  • Breathing Difficulties.
  • Hallucinations.
  • Convulsions.
  • Increased sweating.
  • Decrease in body temperature.

Guilty of this poison phalloidin that cannot be neutralized in any culinary treatments. Once in the body, it immediately begins to destroy the cells of the liver, but the symptoms can appear only on the third day.

symptoms of food poisoning

Emergency treatment of poisoning this poison can be effective, strange as it may sound, before the appearance of signs (for example, a person realized that he had eaten a bad mushroom, and immediately started to wash out the stomach, quickly went to the hospital). In other cases, possible to save at least 30% of the victims.

In other fungi, referred to above, contains the poison orellanine. His deceit is that the first symptoms may appear many days after the meal (sometimes the incubation period lasts two weeks).

Symptoms:

  • Thirst.
  • Pain in the kidneys and the peritoneum.
  • Feeling that freezing limbs.
  • Headache.
  • Weakness, malaise.

To Wash out the stomach in this situation makes no sense. The patient can help a specific in-patient treatment, aimed at the neutralization of toxins and restoration of damaged organs. The percentage of death by poisoning orellanine is also very high.

Some mushrooms contain muscarine (red Amanita, pantherina). If poisoning symptoms they are:

  • Strong emotional excitement, followed by drowsiness, lethargy.
  • Hallucinations.
  • Bradycardia
  • Nonsense.
  • Signs of intoxication (diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain).
  • Increased salivation and lacrimation.
  • Hysteria.
  • Anuria.

First aid at a poisoning with poisonous mushrooms is immediate lavage of the stomach with vomiting, but these actions are effective not in all cases. The patient can drink chelators, wrap it and in a position to wait for doctors. In hospital the victim should have professional assistance, which consists in the neutralization of toxins. Also perform the treatment indicated.

The House before arrival of doctors you can give a man to drink a decoction of clover, horsetail and oak bark (5:5:2). Dry ingredients make a mixture, take 3 soup spoons, pour boiling water, allow to stand for at least 10 minutes, quickly cooled to the infusion has become warm and give to drink half a glass. This folk remedy also neutralizes some poisons.

Conclusion

Food Poisoning, gases or chemicals it happens every day with hundreds of people. To protect yourself from such incidents, first and foremost, you need to carefully approach your diet, do not use expired products, even if they look great, not to gather mushrooms and berries in the field. Motorists are required to equip their vehicles with devices to cleanse exhaust fumes from the WITH, parents should not leave young children without supervision.

If after all the trouble happened, you need to, without losing his composure, quickly call an ambulance and while she goes to perform the actions recommended in our article.

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