Reproduction of fungi. Methods of reproduction of fungi


2018-04-05 09:15:30




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We used to call mushrooms the mushrooms and boletus that look great on the table set for dinner. But their true nature is to argue that the lessons of botany, or in the case of the rare “pseudo-scientific" conversations. The structure, mode of existence, and especially the proliferation of fungi for the greater part of the population are “mystery”. Yes, the theme is special. Nevertheless, an educated person, it is desirable to have a minimum idea about all. Right?

Description of a living organism

Before you delve into the interesting and complicated subject «Methods of reproduction of mushrooms”, let's find out what they represent. This is important and very the proliferation of fungiInteresting. Looking ahead, we say that the reproduction of fungi – is a difficult process. It this way - two words, can not describe. But let's order. Fungi are living organisms having characteristics of both plants and animals. A symbiosis of both. Their Kingdom is huge! It includes the mushrooms and miledy (the so-called mushroom-like organisms). At present, there are over one hundred thousand species, although scientists believe that it had reviewed only one third of existing in nature. The hypothesis that it is hardly possible to doubt, since the existence and reproduction of fungi, as it turns out, can take place in the most difficult and unimaginable circumstances. Science has come to the conclusion that these living organisms do not have common roots with the plants. They were derived from special microorganisms that lived in the ocean. With plants mushrooms brings the structure of the cell wall, the steady state, the ability to reproduce by spores, synthesis of vitamins. In addition, they absorb from the soil nutrients. With animals, they also have common features. Namely, the fungi accumulate glycogen in stock, secrete urea, can not themselves create nutrients.


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About the building

To imagine the proliferation of fungi, you need to know what they look like. Because it is not clear what will be rebuilt. Mushrooms for the most part consists of the vegetative body. This is not what we see and collect. This body actually is a huge mass of colorless threads called “plant” or “mycelium". It is divided into two parts. methods of reproduction of fungiOne is in the ground and is responsible for food. Second – close to the surface. This part deals with the formation of reproductive organs (we call them mushrooms). Itself a living organism is able to very cleverly adapt to the environment, altering vegetative body. For example, parasites can anchor into “donor”, sucking from it the nutrients.

Methods of reproduction of fungi

Since this is a whole separate world of living organisms that do not have “relatives” in the environment of animals and plants, and it exists on its own. Fungi reproduction can be sexual, asexual or vegetative. Some types of birth of their kind by budding. That is, practically all known methods. If we consider more, here has its own characteristics and nuances. organ of reproduction in fungiSo, asexual reproduction occurs in fungi mycelium. A separate cell of this filament may form a separate body. In addition to “breed”, these organisms create special processes – on reproduction. In fungi, it appears mostly in warm, moist period. Those elements which can develop a new organism, called the Diaspora.

Vegetative propagation of mushrooms

These organisms can occur even from a single cell, which is the Diaspora. Most of the mycelium is separated part, which becomes an independent organism. With this method don't need reproductive organs. Fungi just part sexual reproduction of fungiMycelium is separated from the main body buds, so to speak. From it grows a new one. Even the mycelium of some species can form of aidii (bright threads of processes). Of them there is a new body. Is a transitional form from vegetative or asexual reproduction. To see this natural process will not work. Everything happens in the soil (the environment where the mycelium growing).

Asexual reproduction

The process is more open. It is implemented by the dispute. They are very small and light. Do not sink in water, carried by the wind, sticks to animal hair. And travel. Once in a suitable environment, begin to develop. Disputes are divided into resting and propagative, the movable and stationary. Lowly mushroom has a more aggressive mechanism of reproduction. Their characteristic motile spores are equipped with flagella. They can fly up to thousands of kilometers. Asexual reproduction of fungi, to which we are accustomed, going through the fixed argument. They, too, are different. For simplicity, they divide into endogenous and exogenous. The first are formed inside the sporangia. Such argument is dense shell. The number depends on the specific species of mushroom. Some fungi have only a single spore (conidium). Methods of education are very diverse. For the most part they are formed at the tips of conidiophores.

Sexual reproduction

Here, too, there arevariation. Sexual reproduction of fungi may be held in different ways, associated with the formation of the zygote. One of them – gametogonia. This method is characteristic of the lowly mushroom. It can be interpreted as asexual reproduction of fungiThe fusion of two cells (gametes). In some species they are the same, others – vary in size. Even gametes differ in mobility. That is the nature of “trained” fungi, developing methods of reproduction. These types of organisms is missing from the traditional oogamy (fixed female and moving male cells). Sexual reproduction fungi may take the form of gametogonia. This method is characteristic of highly organized organisms. The most typical of sexual reproduction in mushroom somatogamy. The process is that the spores can germinate and fuse with membranes and then nuclei. Of them develops a new organism.

About pileate mushrooms

The Theory, of course, interesting, but for understanding the processes preferably “feel” example. Consider the reproduction of basidiomycetes. They are something we can see and explore. The fact that people collect for food, called fruit bodies. Their mushrooms are grown with the objective of organizing the process of reproduction. In science they are called "spores". They consist of the cap and the stem, which are dense bundles of hyphae. Spores are at the top. The hat has two branches. The top – dense, covered with painted skin. Beneath it hides the bottom layer. Some species are banded, others – tubular. In this layer lie the debate. vegetative reproduction of fungiFor example, russules and mushrooms have a laminated structure, and the boletus and boletus – tubular. In this layer Matures to a million spores. They sleep on the ground, dispersed by wind or animals, insects, water. So the process of reproduction.

Why mushrooms are cut and not rip

As people engaged in the collection of “bodies sporulation”, unwittingly interfering in the process of reproduction of these organisms. If you just take the ‘bag of seeds”, the fungus will grow a new one. In fact, it is huge and creates not one, but reproduction of basidiomycetesNumerous “bodies sporulation”. And when we rip out the ginger or boletus, inflict great damage to the mycelium (fungus). It takes a long time to restore it. It may happen that in the area it will not grow. It is therefore necessary to carefully prune the stem, so as not to harm the mycelium.

This is interesting

Scientists are very carefully study of these living organisms. For them not just watch, they carry out many experiments. Some of which shock. So, we know that Japanese researchers came to the conclusion about the reasonableness of yellow yeast. They conducted an experiment during which made this organism to grow in the “maze”, which was hidden by the sugar. It turned out that the yellow mold "remembers" the path to get to the Goodies. The Appendix, taken from this organism, growing straight to the place where the sugar! But it's just a simple fungus that reproduce vegetatively.

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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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