When the civil war began in Spain, General Francisco Franco (Francisco Paulino of Hermenegildo Teodulo Franco Bahamonde - full name) celebrated its arakatzailea, but he seemed already tired of life and much older than his years. To unpresentable appearance, and added another fatigue, although it is suspected that it was mostly tongue-in-cheek.
On a short-legged, short (157 cm), stout, with shrill thin voice, awkward gestures of General his German friends-the blond beast looked puzzled: I do not Jewish roots. Reason for confusion was quite high: the Iberian Peninsula is home to Kordovye approximately one-eighth of the Semites of the population. There are besides many centuries ruled by Arabs, and Franco himself was not a Castilian, he was born in populous Portuguese of Galicia.
As we know, this day in 1936 began every morning the weather forecast, which was the signal to start the uprising: "Over Spain the cloudless sky". Revolt against the Republic have been provoked by the Republicans. Leftists of all shades have flooded the government and the social Democrats, and socialists, and Trotskyites, and anarchists - the left slope of the day was made cooler.
Guerrilla warfare, anarchy, economic turmoil has pushed the country into collapse and chaos. Rampaged political repressions, instead of working people were offered only slogans, the Spanish farmer is not able gift to feed a bunch of leaders, talkers, agitators, and free trade was prohibited by the Republicans. In this situation, the political pendulum could not find a middle ground, from the extreme left, he rushed to the rightmost position.
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The centre of forces and the point of coordination of interests was not found. In Spain, the authority was the Catholic Church as an institution of propaganda. To this day Spain is a country of deeply religious people. Although the Republic did not dare to dechristianization, repression was still so in the face of the Church, they received a sworn enemy, and the great mass of believers - enemies before the time hidden.
The Right advantages also not good: there was dominated by political obscurantism and obscurantism dense. The aristocratic landowners and the order of the mossy nobles puffed out his cheeks and stick his chest out unnecessarily because they couldn't Fund the rebellion. That is why the Spanish Nazis asked for help from Italy and Germany, and the army had recruited from the mobilized peasants and hired Arab-Berber gunmen from Morocco.
Republicans were not spared in their territory of any species of suckers, but the Nazis were in no way inferior to them in cruelty. Rather, tucked in his belt. The rebels took on his shoulders the slogans, not at all similar to Nazi German or fascist Italian, the Spaniards wanted "the people, the monarchy and the faith."
I Must say, Mussolini despised the monarchy, and the Church was indifferent to it. Hitler hated Christianity and Semites. Francisco Franco was an internationalist: the Spaniards was all citizens, without distinction of race or tribe. His ideology was Catholicism, and to restore it was about the monarchy.
Standing at the head of state, Francisco Franco Bahamonde did not feel confident. Because in the situation he got very complicated. How to get Spain out of this morass and save power, he did not know. Only saw that only desperate maneuvering can achieve these two issues.
Francisco Franco knew that Mussolini and Hitler necessarily involved him in a world war. And then, if they win, Spain nothing will not win, and if lose, Spain will cease to exist.
And Francisco Franco, whose biography is documented this incredible maneuvering, declared neutrality. Friendly gestures, of course, in the way Hitler was, but that this friend was kept at a distance.
For Example, Franco permitted German ships and submarines based in Spanish ports, gave them tobacco, oranges and fresh water. Also took ships from Argentina meat and grain to Germany, was allowed to carry it all through the Spanish territory. But when the war started with Russia, not subordinated to the Wehrmacht division, which were sent back. German troops on the territory of Spain was not allowed.
Francisco Franco quotes and even sayings which come down to us in the not too large quantities, the German Ambassador said: "Precautionary policies not only in the interests of Spain. It is needed and Germany. Because Spain is giving Germany tungsten and other rare products, Germany is now even more important than Spain involved in the war."
Franco had allowed herself respectfully to respond to Churchill, England has maintained diplomatic relations. Said about Stalin without much emotion. The genocide of the Jews under the dictator was not against them even restrictive measures were taken. That is why after the war in Spain was not included the soldiers of anti-Hitler coalition: the formal reason was not.
The Germanmilitary and high officials who attempted to hide in Spain, the dictator was escorted to Latin America. Such a high degree of maneuvering worthy of study. Because then - from the beginning of the Caudillo Francisco Franco.
The Caudillo is the head of state for life. This Spanish commander has achieved such a high rank despite the fact that he was born in 1892, in the seaside town of El Ferrol, in Galicia, in the family of an ordinary officer of the nearest naval base. Who besides my family abandoned her, leaving among other children and young Francisco Franco, a nickname which was Paquito ("duck"). Naturally, the boy became even more focused and secretive.
At the military Academy of Toledo, the medieval capital of the country, held the future dictator its not too joyful youth. Thin, stunted, detached from the mother and abandoned by his father, he plunged into his studies and on the field success. In the future, already in the service, priorities Francisco has not changed, and at thirty-three he became a General under him a General at that time was neither in Spain nor in Europe.
Before 1926 service in the colony, Morocco, where the composition of the Spanish Legion, which gathered many of the outcasts of society. He will be the main force, when Francisco Franco and his time will require immediate intervention.
By this time, the future dictator was already married Carmen Polo, a highborn noblewoman, which sought for six years. King Alfonso XIII himself honoured the wedding and was even imprisoned father of the expectant mother. In this marriage a daughter, Maria del Carmen - after returning to Spain.
The Dictator of that time, who ruled the country, Primo de Rivera merged four military Academy one. So the city of Zaragoza has become the new refuge of Francisco Franco, a nickname which no one remembered. The chief of the General military Academy can not be like a duck. In 1931, this institution was abolished.
Next record of Francisco Franco is quite large and interesting. He served under the monarchy, the Republicans and the conservatives. And marching through Galicia, and suppressing the revolt in Asturias, and being almost exiled to the Balearic, and then to the Canary Islands, still constantly moved through the ranks. Here from the Canary Islands he came upon the telegram sent on 17 July 1936. But he first flew to Morocco.
Spain began the massacre. Francisco Franco was at the top of the anti-Republican insurgency, because the fascists and the monarchists, despite their mutual hostility, saw him as a compromise figure who could find a common denominator for the agreement of the opposing teams.
It was Franco negotiated with Hitler and Mussolini for military assistance, thus registering a victory over the Republicans. And became Generalissimo. And the country for three bloody years have lost seven hundred thousand of its citizens in the fighting, fifteen thousand by bombing, and thirty thousand were executed.
All the amazing paradoxes of management only contributed to the strength of the power of the dictator and increase its credibility. In a world war, not entered: had the civil. With the countries of anti-Hitler coalition relationship is not ruined. Even he looks with age has changed, become very dignified and eloquent. Photo of Francisco Franco in those years clearly demonstrated a confident man with a keen, piercing eyes.
However, the economy is so undermined the civil war that from a comatose state to bring it all failed. Supporter of self-sufficiency and economic regulation by the state, Franco was unable to hold reform. The country became economically liberal import of capital from other countries flowed into Spain.
The UN condemned Franco's regime as dictatorial, but almost all Western countries have supported this man for the irreconcilable anti-communism. In 1969, the much older the dictator proclaimed his successor Juan Carlos, Prince, grandson of Alfonso planted his father at the wedding of Franco. So gradually Spain returned to democracy and constitutional monarchy. But until 1975, when that is done, is still very far away.
The post-war situation was very serious. Financial support of Spain refused, the UN was made until 1955, NATO was not accepted. In 1947 the first Caudillo was personally involved in the upbringing of a young Prince, had prepared him for the monarch's fate. Visited the temple with him, talking and reading to him, knowing that the unprepared king will become a toy in the hands of intriguers or adventurers, will ruin the country, unable to cope with such ossified heritage.
Conservative-Patriotic regime in the country rules by the method of military-oligarchic. Print, censorship, political opposition - repression of parties and trade unions - a total ban, clandestine activities - the death penalty. First of all - discipline. Even the Church was ordered not to increase the number of consecrated persons, be more involved in mundane activities.
In 1955, Spain in the United Nations finally adopted, and a gradual modernization. Technocrats, opponents of the country's isolation from the economic impact of foreign capital (autarky), gained control ofeconomy. Loans were secured for the economic stabilization plan of the international organizations, weakened administration control over the economy.
Foreign capital the wide river flowed to Spain, the peseta became freely convertible. But Franco watched, that democracy has not penetrated the social and political life of the society. Only the economy was opened to her. So, until the death of the dictator in November 1975, Spain was an authoritarian state.
"secret diplomacy of Madrid", "Francisco Franco and his epoch" and some other books thoroughly reveal the course of events in Spain for nearly a century. This is a very informative work. Wrote them Svetlana Pozharskaya. Francisco Franco, dictator and reformer, arises before the reader in all of its low growth and presents him with all his giant character. Pozharskaya fulfilled the country's first monograph on Franco, covering the entire life Caudillo and extensive historical background. Here there is a detailed analysis of the crisis of society and of the causes of francoism. Contribution to Russian isplastic Pozharskoe S. P. received a high appraisal in Spain.
The hunt for one meticulous journalist led to a surprising discovery: the author purchased it in Spain the book "Freemasonry" - Francisco Franco, using the pseudonym for conspiracy. This work is a huge work on philosophy and conspiracy theories, it reveals many of the mechanisms of exposure to senior people, the introduction of the power of the representatives of Freemasonry.
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