Confucianism and Taoism: two sides of one China

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2019-04-15 08:20:26

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The Official religion in China was born during the fall of the Zhou dynasty. In 5-3 centuries BC the powerful state turned into a bunch of feudal kingdoms constantly warring with each other. The lower classes, coming from obedience, seething like a cauldron of boiling water, and this “water” was born hundreds of religions and teachings. Subsequently, the collection of these philosophical ideas became known under the name of “a Hundred schools”. However, survived and stuck only two teachings-Confucianism and Taoism. Over time, these two schools became the basis of the social and religious world of China. Taoism can be considered the religion of China, while the teachings of Confucius controls the social life of the Chinese. Thus, these schools of thought complement each other for 2000 years defining consciousness and behavior of millions of people.

Confucianism is named after its founder, kung Fu-tze. Thanks to the Christian missionaries that name began to sound as "Confucius". Confucius lived in 551-470 years BC, when the way Chinese society has changed from Patriarchal to bureaucratic. Confucianism and Taoism that support the spiritual realm, helped to prevent anarchy and keep the Chinese state from total collapse. The teachings of Confucius is based on achieving harmony between the world and people. Religion, Confucius was not concerned, focusing on a person's life. It was controlled by five types of relationships based on the principle of ‘FILIAL piety", which to this day is the basis of Chinese culture.

Pride of place in Confucianism was given various rituals. They were gathered in a kind of “the law”, which was to be followed by every Chinese. Without respect for the principles of Confucianism man could not make a career in public service. Instead of the clergy rites in Confucianism was made the head of the family, high officials and the Emperor, and the cult of the state was equated with the worship of Heaven. Thus, Confucianism, and Taoism completely controlled the lives of the Chinese people.

Taoism was born out of the teachings of the legendary Lao-Tzu. The fundamentals of his teachings he presented in the Holy book called "Dao de Jing". The meaning and purpose of human life, Lao Tzu saw in the immortality that is achieved through asceticism and concentration. Ascetic, lead a righteous life, becomes a man of the Tao-the eternal reality of the divine and creativity. Manifestation of Dao in real life, the nature of things is considered to be Te. Daos never interferes with De and not trying to change it. Taoism, basic ideas which are the three concepts-love, humility and moderation – preaches "laissez-faire”. Inaction – this is the main rule and the Foundation of life of the Taoist. He refuses any attempt to change the world and your own life and surrenders to a full withdrawal.

As in Confucianism, in Taoism, too, there is the ideal of the state. The Taoists is a small country, not leading wars, trading with neighbours, and social and spiritual life which is based on the principle of non-action. In China, these views have become the cause of popular uprisings and revolutions. The ideal person in Taoism is considered to be a recluse who devoted himself to the attainment of immortality. Over time Taoism was divided into two conditional parts-philosophical and religious, which have significant differences. The religious part includes various superstitions and belief in magic. It got out to such areas as astrology and Feng Shui. The spiritual center of Daoism are numerous monasteries.

For Centuries, Confucianism and Taoism successfully resisted Buddhism. Supporting and complementing each other, these teachings formed the mysterious and inscrutable China, which is preserved to this day.

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