Lev Vygotsky: biography, pictures and creativity


2018-03-22 08:34:16




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An Outstanding scientist Lev Semenovich Vygotsky, whose major works included in the Golden Fund of world of psychology, had a lot in his short life. He laid the Foundation of many later trends in psychology and pedagogy, some of his ideas are still awaiting development. Psychologist Lev Vygotsky belonged to the galaxy of outstanding Russian scientists who combined erudition, brilliant rhetorical skills and deep scientific knowledge.

Lev Vygotsky

Family and childhood

Lev Vygotsky biography which began in a prosperous Jewish family in the town of Orsha, was born on 17 Nov 1896. His name at birth was Profitable, he changed the letter in 1923. Father's name was Simh, but in the manner of a Russian called Semyon. The parents of Lion were well-educated and wealthy people. My mother worked as a teacher, his father was a merchant. In the family of Leo was the second of eight children.

In 1897, Profitable move to Gomel, where his father became Deputy Governor of the Bank. Childhood Lion had been quite well, mother all the time was devoted to children. The house also has grown children of a Profitable brother-older, in particular brother David, who had a strong influence on Leo. The Profitable house was a cultural center, a gathering of local intellectuals, discussed cultural news and events in the world. Father was the founder of the city's first public library, the children from childhood accustomed to reading good books. Subsequently, the family went several eminent philologists, and to distinguish it from its cousin, the representative of Russian formalism, lion will change the letter in the last name.


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Lev Semenovich Vygotsky books


For children into the family of Profitable were invited to a private teacher Solomon Markovich of Aspis known for his unusual pedagogical method, based on the “Dialogs” of Socrates. In addition, he held progressive political views and consisted of the social democratic party.

Leo was influenced by the teacher, and also brother David. From childhood he was fond of literature and philosophy. His favorite philosopher was Benedict Spinoza, and this hobby the scientist has carried through life. Lev Vygotsky was educated at home, but later successfully passed the external examination for the fifth class of the gymnasium and went into the 6th class of the Jewish gymnasium, where he received his secondary education. He studied it, but continued to receive private lessons in Latin, Greek, Hebrew and English languages at home.

In 1913, he successfully resists the entrance exams to Moscow University's medical faculty. But pretty soon, he transferred to the legal. In 1916 he writes a lot of reviews of books of modern writers, articles on culture and history, reflections on “Jewish”. In 1917 he decides to resign and is translated at the historical-philological faculty of the University. Shanyavsky, which ends next year.

Lev Semenovich Vygotsky major works


After Graduating from University, Lev Vygotsky faced with the problem of employment. He and his mother and younger brother first sent to Samara in search of a place then goes to Kiev, but in 1918 returned to Gomel. Here it connects to the construction of a new school, which began teaching along with his elder brother David. From 1919 to 1923 he worked in several educational institutions of Gomel, also heads the Department of education. This teaching experience became the basis for his first scientific research in the field of methods of influence on the younger generation.

It is an organic part of the progressive pedological field that unites psychology and pedagogy. Vygotsky creates an experimental laboratory at the Gomel College, which formed his educational psychology. Vygotsky Lev Semenovich actively speaks at conferences, is a prominent scientist in the new field. After the death of the academic works devoted to problems of formation of skills and education of children, will be combined into a book entitled "educational psychology". It will contains articles about the attention, aesthetic education, forms of learning of the child's personality and psychology teacher.

First steps in science

While studying at the University, Lev Vygotsky, and fond of literary criticism, published several works on poetics. His work on the analysis of “hamlet” William Shakespeare was a new word in literary analysis. However, systematic research activities Vygotsky begins to engage in another field – at the junction of pedagogy and psychology. His experimental laboratory led the work, which became a new word in Pedology. Even then, Lev Semenovich occupied mental processes and the questions of influence of psychology on the activity of the teacher. His work presented at several conferences, were bright and kind, which allowed Vygotsky to become a psychologist.

Lev Vygotsky's psychology of art

Path in psychology

The First work of Vygotsky related to the problems of teaching anomalous children, these studies not only initiated the development of speech, but also become a serious contribution to the study of higher mental functions and mentalpatterns. In 1923 at the Congress of Psychoneurology happens a fateful meeting with a prominent psychologist, A. R. Luria. He was literally conquered by the report] and was the initiator of the relocation of Lev Semenovich Moscow. In 1924, Vygotsky received an invitation to work at the Moscow Institute of psychology. Thus began the brightest, but the short period of his life.

The Interests of the scientist were very different. He has addressed issues of concern at that time reflexology has made a significant contribution to the study of higher mental functions, and also didn't forget about the first attachment – on pedagogy. After the death of the scientist will be a book that combines his many years of study – “the Psychology of human development”. Lev Semenovich Vygotsky was a methodologist of psychology, and this book contains his reflections on the fundamental methods of psychology and diagnostics. Especially important is the part dealing with the psychological crisis, emergency interest 6 lectures of the scientist, where it stops on the main issues of General psychology. Vygotsky did not have time to deeply disclose their ideas, but became the founder of a number of areas in science.

Lev Semenovich Vygotsky Trudy

Cultural-historical theory

A Special place in the psychological concept is Vygotsky's cultural-historical theory of development of the psyche. He in 1928, makes a bold at the time the statement that the social environment is the main source of development of personality. Vygotsky, Lev Semenovich, works on Pedology which had a special approach, rightly believed that the child passes through the stages of formation of the psyche not only as a result of implementation of biological programs, but also in the development of the "psychological tools": culture, language, systems of counting. The consciousness is developed in cooperation and communication, so the role of culture in shaping personality cannot be overemphasized. People, according to psychologist, being absolutely social, and society is a mental function can not form.

educational psychology Lev Semenovich Vygotsky

“Psychology of art”

Another important step, which is famous for Vygotsky Lev, – “Psychology of art”. It came many years after the author's death, but even then made a huge impression on the scientific world. Her impact experienced researchers from different fields: psychology, linguistics, Ethnology, art studies, sociology. The main idea of Vygotsky was that art is an important sphere of development of many mental functions, and its origin is due to the natural course of human evolution. Art is a critical factor in the survival of the human population, it performs many important functions in society and of living individuals.

“Thinking and speech”

Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky, whose books are still extremely popular around the world, did not publish his main work. The book “Thinking and speech” was a real revolution in the psychology of his time. In it, the scientist was able to Express many of the ideas that much later were formulated and developed in cognitive science, psycholinguistics, social psychology. Vygotsky was experimentally proved that human thinking is formed and developed solely in speech activities. While language and speech are also a means of stimulating mental activity. He found stadial character of the formation of thinking and introduced the concept of "crisis", which today is used universally.

psychologist Lev Vygotsky

The contribution of the scientist in science

Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky, whose books today are a must-read for every psychologist, in his very short scientific life could make a significant contribution to the development of several Sciences. His work became, among other studies, the impetus for the formation of Psychoneurology, psycholinguistics, cognitive psychology. Its cultural-historical concept of mental development is the Foundation of the whole scientific schools in psychology that have been most active began to develop in the 21st century.

It is Impossible to underestimate the contribution of Vygotsky to the development of national defectology, developmental and educational psychology. Many of his works are only now receiving their true evaluation and development, in the history of Russian psychology now occupies pride of place of names such as Lev Vygotsky. Book scientist today are constantly reprinted, published his drafts and sketches, the analysis of which shows how powerful and original was his ideas and plans.

The Students] are the pride of Russian psychology, and fruitfully developing his own ideas. In 2002 he published the book the scientist “Psychology”, in which are United his fundamental research in the basic science sections, such as General, social, clinical, developmental psychology, and developmental psychology. Today this tutorial is the base for all universities in the country.

Lev Vygotsky books

Personal life

Like any scientist, Lev Semenovich Vygotsky, the psychology which has become a matter of life, a large part of his time was his work. But in Gomel he had a mate, the bride, andlater, the wife – Roza Smekhova Naewna. The couple lived a short life together of only 10 years, but it was a happy marriage. The couple had two daughters, Gita and Asya. Both were scientists, Gita Lvovna – psychologist and speech pathologist, Asya L., – biologist. Continued psychological dynasty and the granddaughter of the scientist – Elena E. Kravtsova, who now heads the Institute of psychology named after his grandfather.

The End

In the early 1920s, Lev Vygotsky contracted tuberculosis. He became the cause of his death in 1934. Scientist until the end of days continued to work and on the last day of his life, said: “I am ready”. The last years of life of the psychologist was complicated by the gathering of clouds around his work. Impending repression and persecution, so death allowed him to avoid arrest and his family was saved from the massacre.

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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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