Russia is a multinational state, the regions of which presents areas that are unique from the point of view of culture, nature, and largely in the aspect of respectful and peaceful coexistence of different peoples. Among those is the Republic of Altai. What are the most remarkable phases in the history of the region? On the basis of its economy? What are the features of cultural development of the Altai Republic today?
Consider first the structure of state power of the Republic. Does it differ fundamentally from the models operating in other Russian regions?
The Government of the Altai Republic - in the narrow interpretation of this term is one of the authorities that form the system of government of the Federation. According to the Constitution considered political units, the wording of which is generally similar to the corresponding provisions of the basic law of the Russian Federation, the key institutions of government operate within the framework of the separation of legislative, Executive and judicial branches.
If, however, interpreted the analyzed term is not as a body, and in a broader sense, i.e. as a system of political governance, it is perhaps worth noting that the government of the Altai Republic organized with the observance of the principle of delegation of certain powers from the level of the Federation at the municipal. In the same way as in most other regions of Russia.
The Highest official in the structure of political governance in the region - the Head of the Altai Republic. He is elected by a direct vote of the population. At the same time is the head of Government (the Executive authority). It is composed of various ministries of the Altai Republic. The highest legislative authority of the Federation by the national Assembly. In the language of the indigenous people of the Republic of Altai, it sounds like El-Kurultai. The Government is accountable to the national Assembly. The Supreme Court of the Altai Republic is the highest authority in the third branch of government.
The Administrative-political structure of the region form the 10 districts, each of which is divided into municipalities, as well as the capital of the Altai Republic. This system of organization of power are quite similar with the management models implemented in other national republics of the Russian Federation. The capital of the entity - the city of Gorno-Altaisk.
Each of the municipalities forming the administrative-political structure of the Republic, has its own Charter, which must be recorded by the Government. The head of the municipality elected through direct vote. The statutes of most MO include provisions under which the head of the defense Ministry is also in charge of the Executive body of the appropriate territorial unit. However, the variant in which the key political figure of the municipality may be a Chapter legislative representative structures. For example, in Shebalinsky area of the person occupying the position of head of this MO is also the Chairman of the Board of Deputies. The head of the Ust-Koksa district in turn is headed by the representative body, but also the administration of the MO. A similar model operates in the Chemal district of the Republic.
Thus, the structure of the political power of the subject of Federation as a whole is similar to models adopted in other Russian regions. Therefore, examining the highlights and move on to study national and cultural peculiarities of the Republic, which, in turn, in many aspects unique.
Among the most multinational regions of Russia - Altai Republic. The indigenous language linguists refer to the Turkic group. He, along with Russian, is one of two official in the Federation. Altaians in the country - about 31 % of the population. The majority, about 60% are Russian. A noticeable share of the Kazakh ethnic group - about 6 %. In addition, this land is home to a large number of ethnic Ukrainians and Germans.
History of the Altai Republic is interesting primarily from the point of view of the development of the indigenous ethnic group. We consider the main stages of the ethnogenesis of the Altai, as well as their social and cultural communication with other Nations. In fact, the Altai - a collective name of several tribes speaking Turkic languages. The largest nation is the Teleuts, Tubalar, the uriyangkhai, Shor, Telengit and ethnicity,named the same as the title in the Republic of Altai, however, different from other, related to him. There are hundreds more sub-ethnic groups called seacam. Belonging to it is determined, as a rule, the pedigree of man. Communicate local people different dialects. The language of the indigenous ethnic group of the Republic belongs to the Kyrgyz-kapiskau subgroup of the Turkic dialects.
The Ethnogenesis of the Altai varies depending on the specific region. The Northern peoples inhabiting the Republic, appeared in the process, tribes Samoyed, Ugric, Turkic, and ket origin. The descendants of these ethnic groups are tubulary. In turn, in the South there was an interaction between the Turkic and Mongolian tribes. So there was, for example, Celerity Teleuts. Due to the fact that the Altai peoples of the North and South have different origins and because of the lack of major transportation routes of mutual actively not been in contact for a long time between them remained significant differences in the linguistic, cultural, social aspects. In Soviet times, there has been a marked consolidation of the ethnic group.
However, as noted by some researchers, many Altaians in the first place identificeret themselves not only as inhabitants of the region and the titular nation, but as belonging to a specific ethnic group, seoku or old. Second, according to the ethnographers most important criterion is the language, as well as family and religious traditions, the worldview of ancestors. Also, the researchers note, for Altaians important geographical factor, i.e. the specific place of residence, characteristic of the social environment.
It is Particularly active processes, reflecting the growth of the single national identity of Turks of different genetic origin, began to occur in the 80-ies of the last century. Actually, this trend, according to some researchers, largely determined the fact of announcement in 1991 by the authorities of the subject of state sovereignty in the borders, which corresponds to the modern Republic of Altai. Received the official status of the language of the indigenous ethnic group. Was legislated national holidays, such as independence Day, celebrated on 3 July, the folk festival e-oyyn. In trials, showing the growth of national consciousness of the Altaians, was restored one of the key historical social institutions of the people - a Council of tribal elders, or sasanov. Now their role in social development of the Republic is estimated as critical, complementing official structures of power.
Not least in the development of the Altai ethnic group is the migration process. In different historical periods the indigenous peoples of the region moved between the mountains and the plain. If in the years of Soviet development, as some argue, the indigenous people could gravitate to relocate to the mountains, but now the ethnic group starts to perceive itself as part of civil society residing in located in the plain cities. A key role in this direction plays the capital of the Republic - largely because after the crisis period of the 90s here were more or less important, from an economic point of view, the infrastructure resources.
History of the Altai Republic also interesting in the aspect of the interaction of the indigenous and Russian peoples. Both ethnicity coexist in a common area, traditionally supporting peace in the relationship. Cultural life of the Republic is saturated as the national character of the events and Russian festivals. Some of the holidays of different peoples have a close cultural proximity. For example, national holiday Duilhac very similar to Russian Shrovetide.
As the researchers note, the active cooperation of the Altai people with Russian began in the 17th century. At approximately the mid-18th century a substantial part of the territory of the modern Republic was part of the Dzhungar khanate, with whom the Russian Empire, relations were not very friendly. This circumstance was, as historians believe, a significant barrier to further contacts with the Russian indigenous ethnic groups of the region. However, local people living in most favorable social and political conditions. They were surrounded by mostly hostile Mongol and Chinese tribes. As a result, Altai Sayany at the time their status in the national communities was close to the one that had the Russian princes asked the king for citizenship. So, on 2 may 1756, Altai territory became part of the Russian Empire. From the late 18th century, the indigenousethnic groups of the region became especially interact with Russian compatriots. Residents of the European part of the Empire, is moving to a new territory, attracted, according to the researchers, the prospect of the development of arable land. Together with migrants to the Altai came the Russian Orthodox Church engaged in missionary work.
One example of the unity of the Russian and the indigenous people of the region can be considered the national anthem of the Altai Republic. It is unique because it is presented in two versions in the national language and in Russian. However, his second verse is written only on Altai. Officially the national anthem of the Republic of Altai was adopted relatively recently, in 2001. This Patriotic song, as the researchers believe, in many ways attests to the importance and influence of centuries-old friendship of the two peoples on their joint peace and amicable coexistence, as well as on the prospects for further development of the Altai Republic in the socio-political and cultural terms.
The interesting capital of the Republic of Altai? Consider the basic facts. Is Gorno-Altaisk in the North-West of the Republic, the territory of the municipality Mayminsky district. The city population is more than 61 thousand people. The official history of Gorno-Altaysk, as some argue, is the beginning of the 19th century. While on the site of the future capital was a small settlement founded by one of the indigenous ethnic groups of the region, Teleuts. However, there are confirmed by archaeologists in the area of Gorno-Altaysk people have lived since ancient times.
Actively develop the future capital of the Altai Republic began with the 20-ies of the 19th century. In particular, in 1824 they began to move settlers from Biysk. They had founded the village, whose name on one of the indigenous languages sounds like Ulala. It became part of the Biysk district of Tomsk province. Rural development, as historians believe, was connected mainly with the activities of the Altai spiritual mission. In the subsequent decades Ulala began to move merchants, after which the settlement became an important trading center of the Biysk County.
In 1917 there was a revolution and came to power Tips. It was decided to form in the area where was located the village of Ulala, Biysk and several others located in the region, settlements and Oyrotskih Autonomous region. In 1922, Ulala became its administrative center, and in 1928 the settlement was granted town status. In 1932 its name was changed to oyrot-Tura. In 1948 Oyrotskih Autonomous oblast was decided to rename the Gorno-Altai. Changed the name and the capital. From the moment she called the Gorno-Altai.
Consider, as the capital of the Altai Republic are organized in economic terms. In the Soviet period, Gorno-Altaysk became a powerful industrial center. It housed enterprises of different industrial sectors - construction, machinery, metallurgy, food, printing. Functioned furniture and textile factories. However, after the collapse of the Soviet Union the main part of the industries closed down. One of the few remaining who are now playing a key role in the city's economy and significantly affect the development of the Altai Republic, the factory of concrete products.
The emphasis Now is to invest in the economic system of the city is the tourist industry. Culture of the Altai Republic has a long history, in fact, it binds several civilizations. This makes the region an attractive destination in the field of ethno-tourism. There is an active development of the infrastructure necessary for the organization of recreational services. Building hotels, restaurants, open Wellness centers.
One of the key objects of the city - the tract Elanda, located near Gorno-Altaysk. It created a large recreation area. It is planned construction of ski resort infrastructure for equestrian sports, a different kind of winter sports. Initiatives associated with the transformation of the region into a tourist center, are already yielding results. There is evidence that, for example, since 2010 there has been a steady increase in tourist flow. Some experts believe that in the current difficult economic situation, in which there resides Russia, Altai Republic may be able to begin to attract tourists, accustomed to expensive winter resorts on other Russian regions and foreign countries.
The Altai Republic is a unique place in terms of geography and from the viewpoint of centuries of development and mutual penetration of religions, cultures, national traditions. Many people here, note the special connection of indigenous people with nature - and this sense of harmony with the surrounding world Altaians somehow manages to pass on to others adjacent to them ethnic groups, including visitors. The Republic of Gorny Altai, despite the considerable degree of industrialization in the Soviet era, has large areas that are not mastered by man. There, in terms of clean environment, the inhabitant of the modern Russian megalopolis can to forget about daily problems, relax from the noisy city and bustle. Come to Mountain Altai!
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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
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