One of the oldest churches in our country - the Cathedral of St. Andrew, or St. Andrew's Cathedral. Saint Petersburg is decorated with this ancient temple, which is not only great architectural value, but also the most revered parishioners of a sacred place, whose history dates back to Peter I.
Until the early 18th century the administrative center of Saint-Petersburg Rabbit island, but in the 20 years Peter and I moved it on Vasilevsky planned the construction of the Cathedral in honor of St. Andrew. Peter considered him their patron and saw a future temple in front of the building of the Twelve colleges. He also asked me to create a large-scale project, according to which the temple would have resembled the shape of the Roman Basilica named after St. Peter and was at least 130 meters in length. The Swedish architect Tessin remotely, without visiting Russia, made a drawing of the future temple, and the place in his drawings layout was created. However, the demise of the Emperor in 1725, suspended the implementation of the project, not allowing him to see in the life of St Andrew's Cathedral.
Saint-Petersburg in the person of his residents asked for the construction of the temple, and the congregation several times collected money for it. But the first stone was laid in 1732. Later grew out of it the familiar St. Andrew's Cathedral in St. Petersburg.
After the death of Peter exactly where he wanted, at the intersection of Bolshoy Avenue and 6th lines, in 1728, was allocated land for construction.
The Wooden Church, built presumably according to Trezzini's project was dedicated to Saint Andrew in 1732. Anna donated the Church money for the resettlement, and the dilapidated Church in the Posad settlement into a new place moved the iconostasis. The Church has now been used for celebrations of Andrew's knights of the order.
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Despite the cramped quarters and the paucity of design, the temple of the revered Royal family attending Church services, as well as many prominent figures of the time, for example, Lomonosov and trediakovskii was entertained in the temple the oath of office as Professor of the Academy of Sciences.
Parish had a great influence in the religious life of the capital, but did not have the appropriate shape, size, even heating. In 1740 next to the old Church began construction of a more suitable stone Church. In 1745 it was built in the same period received the status of Cathedral. The project for a new temple came up with all the same great Trezzini, and the iconostasis and other interior decoration gave the house Church of the Prince Menshikov.
In 1761, during a lightning storm, burned the old wooden building. Ministers barely managed to save the iconostasis, and after 3 years in its place by decree of Elizabeth of Russia began to build a new Cathedral. Today it stands on the Vasilievsky island, however, its final appearance gained only to the late 18th century.
The project was designed by the architect A. Vista. Construction began in 1746, and only after 15 years was completed Andrew's Cathedral in Saint-Petersburg. The construction was long and arduous, it had lost, in 1766 collapsed the dome, after which the architect was arrested and for a long time investigated the circumstances of the incident. But on March 21, 1780, the new Church was consecrated, and he began to accept members.
At the behest of Emperor Paul I the Cathedral became the religious center of the knights of the order of St. Andrew, and was decorated with bas-relief image of the order.
In the future, the Cathedral continued to decorate and finish. In 1880 a chapel was built, and 4 years before the bell tower. It was 10 bells. The biggest, Sunday, weighed 285 pounds and was specially cast at the factory samgina in Moscow.
In Addition, before the end of the century to the temple built chapels, and covered the dome with gold leaf on donations of merchants. The changes were made and the inner part of the Cathedral, added moldings and updated painting. The Church installed heating, expanded and rebuilt the altar, and also increased the iconostasis.
In the second half of the 19th century the complex in addition to the main activities contained a shelter and helped the poor.
The 20th century for a variety of religious monuments is a century of devastating. The Bolshevik coup and the revolution of 1917 threatened the safety of many Russian cathedrals and churches. St. Andrew's Cathedral is lucky a few more, he was not destroyed, and his servants managed to save part of the property and values from the red robbery.
Many valuable things, such as vessels made of precious metals, the ancient gospel, the icon of the silver dressing of 7 pounds of precious metals produced in 1861 by the famous jeweler by Verkhovtseva, and more were seized by the Bolsheviks.
For realization of the project of construction of boulevards was demolished the chapel and the fence of the complex. A large bell was removed and melted down 10 years later after the revolution, however, religious life in the Cathedral did not stop, it took the group of the so-called Renovationists and atheists under the leadership of Archpriest Platonov. In the Church wereservices, supporters restored part of the iconostasis, but in 1938 the clergy and the most active members were arrested and executed or sentenced to long terms. Soon the Cathedral was abandoned, later used as a warehouse, for which the iconostasis stitched plywood, and the crosses removed. In fact, the building ceased to be called St. Andrew's Cathedral.
Saint Petersburg, then Leningrad, suffered a terrible shock during the great Patriotic war and blockade. They played a role in the history of the temple. Installed in the building air defenses were designed to repel enemy air strikes, which badly damaged the roof and facade, and tear bombs knocked out all the Windows. Also damage was suffered, the iconostasis and the interior. But the temple still stood and kept part of its unique appearance.
After the war, the Cathedral of St. Andrew the Apostle in St. Petersburg passed a variety of state agencies. They in different years was owned by the Navy, the Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Ethnography. In the same period, it was repaired and restored, but about the cultural and historical value are not especially cared for, so a simple paint painted a unique mural in the dome.
In the late 80-ies of the Metropolitan Alexis, who later became the Patriarch of all Russia, began work on return of the Cathedral to the Church. Then he was refused due to the fact that the building had housed the collection of the anthropological Museum, which had nowhere to move. Despite this, Alex gave the Church the necessary Church utensils, and in 1989 there was held the first in many decades of prayer.
St. Petersburg - Northern capital of Russia - is proud of its architectural heritage. One of the unique values is the Cathedral of St. Andrew. I will continue the story of its history.
In 1990, the part of the Cathedral, including the altar, was given to the parish. The following five years, he shared a room with a Cabinet of curiosities. At the same time it was a place of worship and kept the human remains transmitted to science. When the Museum was completely taken his Foundation, the Church has replaced crosses on the Cathedral and made capital repair of the roof.
In 1998, in the life of the complex was a significant event - in honor of the 300th anniversary of Andrew's order of this highest award was re-established by the President and one of its first Cavaliers became Alexy II, marked the beginning of the return of St. Andrew's Cathedral Church.
In the 2000s, work began on the restoration of the chapel and the temple gate, and made a complete restoration of the money of parishioners and funds provided by the state. Later transferred to the Cathedral and relics of St. Andrew.
The Cathedral of the Holy Apostle Andrew the first-called is a unique monument of architecture, designed in a mixed style with elements of classicism and Baroque, which is characterized by some complexity and plasticity of forms. The temple has five domes - one main and four small domes, which are combined with the single-storey chapel, the refectory.
The building Itself is very elegant, aided by the high dome and elongated chapel. The appearance of complement pinnacles around the dome, high Windows with semicircular forms, and pilasters on the facade. This 45-meter high temple has long been a high-rise dominant of Vasilievsky island, today it is choked several multi-storey buildings. Also the elegance of the Cathedral gives a pale pink color of the facade.
The Main pride and unique miracle of St. Andrew's Cathedral is its three-tiered 17-metre carved gilt iconostasis. He miraculously survived since it was built after the revolution, the war, the siege, destruction and the use of the temple for other purposes.
The Iconostasis retained some of the icons, which were transferred from the estate Menshikova in the construction of the temple. So, among them survived the images of St. Nicholas and Alexander Nevsky. But the most valuable icon is of St. Andrew with the relics of the Saint. All in all, the temple of the 44 icons.
The Cathedral loved to visit the Royal family, it even was a special place for the sovereign.
According to legend, in the days when the Cathedral was still a wooden Church, when it was a small cemetery with graves of Prince Dolgoruky and Princess Dolgoruki, the bride of Peter II.
For decoration and improvement of the new building of the temple the money was taken not only from the Treasury and donations, there were the fines levied on knights of various orders for not attending their medal celebrations.
One of the values of the temple - 115-pound vestments of silver, and an ancient gospel in a silver frame. These values were confiscated by the Bolsheviks after the revolution, but by happy coincidence, came back to the Cathedral.
Saint Petersburg is justly proud of them as a symbol of faith and dedication, and sacrifice of people who have managed to save the temple for posterity.
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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."
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