The Planetarium at Barrikadnaya in Moscow is one of the world's largest and oldest in Russia. This structure is included in the list of attractions of the capital. It should be said that to visit the planetarium on Barrikadnaya interesting not only for children but also for adults.
The idea to build a planetarium in Moscow arose in the first years of Soviet power. It was then that the Metropolitan Council recognized the need for enlightenment and education of the people. The planetarium at the barricade had planned to make a center promoting the science of the Universe.
To implement this idea in 1927, created a special Commission. Its main task was the management of the process of the construction of the planetarium. In those years, there were already twelve such facilities. Most of them were in Germany. The Moscow planetarium on the barricade became the thirteenth.
The construction of the planetarium in Moscow, the government allocated an impressive at the time of funding. In addition, a considerable amount of money needed for the purchase in Germany of a special projection apparatus. Equipment was purchased for the Observatory, laboratory facilities and to the cinema. The planetarium was scheduled to open the library, astronomical Museum and classrooms for group classes. Thus, the project developers decided the task of creating this ambitious construction of a kind of national University.
On the creation of the planetarium worked young architects M. O. bard and M. I. Sinyavsky, who in some circles had already known. They created the project was constructivist and fashionable at that time style. The development approved, and then began the construction of the building.
The Facility was put into operation in the autumn of 1929 By this time was over the construction of the dome-screen and completed the installation. For the public, the planetarium in Moscow at the barricade was opened on 5 November.
In the first years of its existence the Moscow planetarium on the barricades did not have extensive programs. He began his work with a short series of lectures. Gradually, however, the program was expanded. Soon visitors were asked to listen to more three, as before, but the forty who read qualified lecturers.
Gradually made improving technical equipment of the "national University". In the first year after the opening of the planetarium was a special device, which was called “Rising sun”. He worked until 1994, Already by 1934 the equipment of the planetarium allows us to show visitors a flying comet and the Northern lights, solar Eclipse and the August shooting stars. Were shown here and the rocket Tsiolkovsky, accompanied by a fiery tail. Until the fifties of the last century was not in the world of planetariums, which would show similar to their visitors. It was the merit of K. N. Sistemskega, who was a talented engineer and first Director of the Moscow planetarium.
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In the same 1934 "national University" began working astronomical club. Held here and engineering courses. Subsequently their graduates became the founders of the famous design Bureau KB-7, which is engaged in the development of liquid rockets.
In Addition to research activities, the planetarium offered its visitors view performances. Their main theme – the glorification of famous astronomers – Copernicus, Giordano Bruno and Galileo.
Do Not stop their work planetarium on the barricades and in war. Read here not only the usual lectures. A series of topics intended for training military pilots and intelligence officers.
In the postwar years was carried out construction of astronomical sites. It was possible to observe these heavenly bodies.
Already by 1947, the planetarium at the barricade (photo below) became a complex of buildings, including the starry room and foyer area and the astronomical Observatory.
For a Long time it was the only place that provided reliable information about the cosmos. In this regard, for many decades the planetarium has been training and studying the stars in the sky the navigators of long-range aviation. Visited the complex at Barrikadnaya and future astronauts. Here they studied celestial navigation.
The Peak of its popularity the planetarium has reached in the 60-ies of the last century. It was the early days of space exploration. Greatly expanded planetarium on the barricade of the programme for its visitors, after the replacement of some equipment. So, you installed the new device is the ‘Planetarium’. Unlike the old one, it was a great opportunity and the automated system work. However, came a time of stagnation that brought the planetarium oblivion. In 1994 it was closed for renovation.
The fixation of the Moscow planetarium for seventeen years. In June 2011, it finally opened. Over the years the complex has been significantly upgraded. Its area has increased almost six times. Currently, the planetarium occupies an area of seventeen thousandsq m and can accommodate a thousand spectators. Tickets for guests cost in the range of one hundred fifty to six hundred rubles. Complex daily take of up to three thousand people.
In the lobby of the planetarium is the scheme of the institution. It is possible to determine their location and navigate how to get into the interesting room. Scheme of volume. When choosing a place, it begins to illuminate. It is very convenient for visitors. If some difficulties do arise, you can always contact the employees of the complex, which will prompt the right direction.
To date, extensive educational program can boast a planetarium on the barricade. Reviews numerous visitors testify to the fact that the resulting information is interesting to people of different knowledge level and age.
The popularity of the planetarium again today big. There is a possibility of free visits to the complex in the days of the lectures. The convenient location and exciting excursions held in different halls, attracts not only residents but also guests of the capital.
Visitors to the planetarium have the opportunity to refresh their knowledge in astronomy. This can be done in several halls, which are located in the complex. Each of these different themes and price.
This room is located in the old part of the complex. His first level introduces visitors to the history of the planetarium, as well as development methods of the science of understanding the Universe.
In the Urania Museum, visitors are greeted by the astronomer-astrologer. He sits surrounded by ancient prints and books, as well as special equipment.
Next, visitors enter the area, the exhibits which are introduced to the history of the planetarium. Here collected a large number of documents and photographs, items and books which allows you to reproduce the facts and events that relate to the complex from 1929 to the present time.
The Most striking exhibits of the equipment, which was equipped with a complex, is the apparatus ‘Planetarium" (serial number 313), who worked from 1977 to 1994, as well as parts of the instrument with a similar name, which functioned from 1926 to 1976 (serial number 13). At the time, was lit artificial sky on the dome.
The Museum showcases, which are placed in angle measuring instruments and telescopes, theodolites and solar watch. This subject develops the Marine area. This exhibition recalls the style of the ship. Here is the sail and deck, bell and helm. In the Windows of cylindrical shape and placed the star maps, and apparatus, with which it is possible to navigate in the sea. This barograph and chronometer, the sextant and the boat compass and spyglass. Without these tools it would be impossible to make voyages of discovery.
In the second hall of the Urania Museum, visitors enter a world of amazing heavenly bodies. There are globes of Venus and Mars, moon and Earth. The closest space neighbors are somewhat similar to each other, but at the same time unique in its own way.
On the sloping ramp, made of marble, is represented the worlds of the Solar system which have the form of hemispheres. Here is the video screen on the wall. It shows detailed images of celestial bodies within the Solar system. In addition to this exposure to the gaze of the visitors see a collection of meteorites. These space aliens look unusual. They melted, have a bizarre shape and annealed side. All these tracks have been left the earth's atmosphere.
This is the most important place in the planetarium. Great star hall is equipped with a dome screen. Its diameter is twenty-five meters. In this room the equipment is installed, which is the pride of the planetarium. It is the device “Universarium" fiber-optic type, which projects astronomical phenomena and worldview.
The Enormous hall is designed for three hundred and fifty six of the audience. Comfortable chairs have a reclining backrest. The dome screen visitors can watch the projection of almost nine thousand planets, stars and constellations.
In this room, collected both ancient and new instruments designed to knowledge of the Universe. It was built to the 800 anniversary of Moscow.
Sky Park – the attraction of the Moscow planetarium. It combines astronomical Observatory and a Museum under the open sky. The exhibits here are in accordance with the following main topics star science: classical, ancient, telescopic astronomy, and solar energy. Here are a collection of a sundial.
This interactive Museum, which occupies two floors. This room is designed for curious kids. The equipment of the Lunarium is not inferior to the leading European museums and science centers.
The Museum are about eighty pieces. Each of them demonstrates the laws of physicsand natural phenomena in the form of a game.
If you decide to visit the planetarium on Barrikadnaya, and how to reach it? It will not be difficult. Not far from the planetarium there is a subway station "barricade". It should be borne in mind that this Museum and entertainment complex is closed on Tuesdays. It is also recommended to prepare for his visit by selecting the desired program. It has a planetarium on barricade official website (planetarium-moscow.ru). It is possible to see the scheduled topics and to purchase tickets.
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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."
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