In rare garden will not meet pear – luxury fruit tree with a spreading crown, ornamental foliage and delicious fruit, which is considered a symbol of prosperity and well-being. Predecessor, but rather, the mother is the basis of many cultivars that adorn the estate, became an ordinary pear, or wild. This member of the rose family, common in nature in the vast territories from Eastern Europe to the West of the Asian continent, a very interesting plant. With its features and preferences, will introduce the current publication.
Cultivate the pear started by the ancient Greeks. It is from Byzantium, these fruit trees in the Russian land. First they praised the monks began to multiply in the monastery gardens. In the Royal estates first of the Romanov dynasty, Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich were grown for 16 varieties of pear trees, and when the great reformer Peter the First, their number in Russia has increased significantly as each year Western European countries supplied the latest varieties of fruit crops. Today, more than 5000 varieties of pears, different shape and size, taste, color and time of ripening of the fruit, grown in different countries.
The ordinary Pear-fruit tree (sometimes large shrub), in a comfortable environment growing up to 20 m in height. The diameter of the trunk of the culture in large specimens sometimes reaches 40-50 cm Young pear has a compact, pyramidal crown, more Mature trees – round, serotoninergicheskoy or spreading. Culture samobesplodny, i.e. for fruit formation it is necessary the presence of two cross-OPELOUSAS varieties. In the temperate zone, such as the popular neighboring plantings of varieties of Siberian, Granddaughter, Drooping.
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Productive lives pear common from 30 to 200 years. In many ways, the longevity of plants is determined by growing conditions and varietal peculiarities.
Especially beautiful tree in the flowering period, when white or slightly pinkish flowers, gathered in corymbose inflorescences cover the branches of the plant so thickly that they obscure the barely hatched sprouts and young leaves. Flowering usually occurs before the full blooming foliage in late April or early may. Flowers with inferior ovary is dotted with numerous stamens.
The Leaves of pear, round or oval with a pointed tip and serrated edge – shiny, dense and smooth. Blossoming leaves densely pubescent, Mature – naked, of a rich green above and light-glare from the bottom. In autumn the leaves of pear, acquiring a yellow-orange color, unusually decorative and long decorate the sleeping gardens.
The Harvest ripens in August and September. The fruit-achene classic pear-shaped, oval or round shape. In juicy pulp meet rocky the inclusion of inherent pears. The colour of the fruit range from green and yellow to pink-red. The taste is different, they are often distinguished by a noticeable tartness. The fragrant fruit gives growers pear yellow – a number zheltoplodnaya varieties. Cultivated in different parts of plants produce different chemical composition and appearance of fruits, but they are all useful and full of important trace elements, and various compounds which create a unique and inimitable flavor, characteristic of certain varieties.
Pear to bear Fruit in ordinary begins at the age of 5-8 years. The yield per tree ranges from 30 to 500 kg. the Maximum yield occurs periodically after 1-2 years.
Being an excellent dietary product, pears have a number of very valuable qualities. Their use in fresh form regulates and normalizes the digestive process, the pears of many varieties have protivolodochnyi, analgesic, diuretic and fastening properties. This is a great natural antiseptic. Fresh fruits like baked, recommend traditional healers for the relief of the States in pulmonary diseases – from bronchitis and pneumonia to tuberculosis manifestations. In addition to eating raw fruits pears – the most valuable raw material for food, perfumery and beverage industry.
Growing culture in fields, deciduous forests, isolated trees or in small Islands. Since ancient times, the herb planted in home gardens, in forest strips along the railroads and highways.
Common, or wild pear-tree of light. Therefore, to ensure her comfort and maximum development of fruiting choose an open Sunny location with light well-drained fertile soils. Plants are suitable for black soil, gray forest loam in areas without standing groundwater. In the wild pear often settles on hills or gentle slopes, is characterized by good drainage.
Wild pear hygrophilous, drought and frost, but sudden changes in temperatures and spring frosts can damage flower buds part. To avoid this, a place for planting a tree should be protected from the North winds.
Growing pear requires basic care, the basis of whichbe moderate watering, formative pruning, weeding and light cultivation of the soil in the tree trunks, and timely feeding, stimulating a harmonious development of fruit tree. He needed protection from various afflictions.
Like many fruit trees, pears are a variety of pests. Tongs Fruit, Apple pollen beetle, leaf and fruit Midge, moth, sawflies, beetles and aphids – here is a partial list of insects that can severely undermine the health of the tree. Pear pests, such as caterpillars of the butterfly aporia Crataegi, make their way to blossoming buds, eating them, leaves and flowers. By mid-summer, butterflies lay eggs on the upper sides of the leaves, the caterpillar is able to eat off them, leaving only the veins. By the fall of aporia Crataegi arranged for the winter, wrapping in leaves.
Dangerous and butterfly-moth. Their larvae eat tunnels in the shoots, which subsequently shrink. They feed on fruit flesh. There are many microscopic insects, invisible to the eye, but no less dangerous: Sudan pear, pearleaf blister mite, etc. Their ability to reproduce and the lack of deterrent measures can weaken the plant and significantly reduce yields. In other words, the fight against them should be all the time, because unprotected wood can simply die.
An Effective method of combating the pear misfortunes think spring spraying of fruit trees with solutions of insecticides. The first treatment "Aleatoria" or "Nitrofenol" is carried out before Bud break and the start of SAP flow, dissolved drug concentration, recommended in the annotation.
Before flowering repeat processing tools, such as "Antioxidant.", "Solon", "Malathion", "Neksion" or "Metaphos".
During the summer season mechanically remove the curled leaves, visible pests, regularly weed the soil in the tree trunks, avoiding turfing. After harvest, remove the foliage apaloo, if necessary, treated wood with a solution of any insecticide or Bordeaux mixture.
Such measures would help to avoid the spread of pests and plants to create the most comfortable conditions for development.
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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."
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