Robots are increasingly being implemented in the daily life of modern man. This trend is particularly visible in the military sphere: in fact, a significant amount of experience in the field of robotics is of defense origin. What are the capacities and abilities of modern robots? Does Russia have competitive samples of such equipment?
Actually that kind of weapons - fighting robot? It is the weapon of the future or products that have already find practical applications in advanced army in the world?
Regarding the first question, the criteria are very different. Among the Russian experts, the term "robot" refers to most often as a device capable of primarily independent decision making. In particular, if to speak about military scope - the target of the shooting, the movement of areas, etc. That is capable in one degree or another, replace a soldier. There are other interpretations of the term "combat robot". Thus, under such machines can be understood in any development, the ability to carry out combat missions without an actual presence on the territory of their conduct of the person. The autonomy of the machines is optional.
Regarding criterion independent of the functions, the robots can act in full autonomy, partial or under human control. A typical fighting robot of the future, experts believe, will be characterized by mostly independent work. Today, however, among the most common - and managed semi-Autonomous cars. The robots, which are completely independent from a man, still a rarity even for the military sector, which often concentrate the most advanced engineering concepts.
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Combat robots are used in practice in the armies of the world for a long time. However, the latest development of weapons of the appropriate type, as a rule, reflect the capabilities of the most advanced technologies in the field of navigation, visual object recognition, artificial intelligence, weapons and other aspects. And because the latest generation of robots can be incomparably more progressive than those developed a few years ago.
In practice, robotic solutions military type can be implemented in many different ways. It can be self-propelled on separate platforms or integrated into current types of military equipment - armored vehicles, tanks. It may be aircraft. It can be underground or underwater device. Among the most modern concepts - robots-androids in our time, that is, those that in appearance look human and are called to replace him in several combat missions.
Military equipment based on robotic developments, thanks to the initiatives of the Ministry of defense of the Russian Federation, will be created and introduced into operation in the framework of the comprehensive target program approved in 2014. It is expected, in particular, that the proportion of robots in the structure of armament of the Russian army may be on the order of 30%. However, most of the relevant points of the program are still classified. But some of the facts known to the public. Look at them.
In particular, there is evidence that one of the robotic systems is tested at the factory in Izhevsk. The machine with the index MRK-002-BG-57, as evidenced by some publications, has tracked the progress, can work about 10 hours in stand-alone mode or controlled remotely from distances up to 5 km. This Russian military robot equipped with a wide range of electronic equipment, a range finder, a thermal imager, a computer. The machine is well armed: it is the Kalashnikov machine gun, a grenade launcher and automatic weapons like the KORD.
The Device, developed in Izhevsk, weighs about 900 kg, speeds up to 45 km/h and runs on a gasoline engine. The autonomy of the robot - one of the key differences from their foreign counterparts, particularly American, which, according to some experts, can fully effectively operate only in the mode of human control.
Also, there are reports that another Russian combat robot will be created on the basis of the car "Tiger". The corresponding set is equipped with a powerful anti-tank weapons like the Kornet. However, public information about this development yet very little.
In the near future In the Russian army needs to do a small robot scouts, manufactured by the company "Constellation". They are intended primarily to work under the ground. These machines are capable of, for example, to determine how much is on the surface of the ground combat equipment of the enemy, its possible type, and the number of soldiers on the same square. From "Constellations" can execute part programs offline.
The Company "Servera" also produces small robots that can be involved in intelligence. So, for example, the machine "Engineer" is interesting because it can climb stairs, to grab small objects. Has "Engineer" a system for high precision visual recognition of surrounding objects, and a navigation module.
These Are the latest development of Russia in the field of robotics. Consider also other promising high-techmilitary products developed by designers from Russia.
The Latest military equipment of Russia - it is not just robots. Among the priority directions of the domestic defense industry - the development of laser systems. There are, in particular, the information that the Russian army is very necessary laser systems for airborne. As an option - those that could be compatible with the A-60 aircraft, equipped with equipment that can shoot down satellites. The laser industry is seen by Russian experts as one of the most promising in the aspect of effective modernization of the armed forces of the state.
What the latest Russian developments in the aspect of promising technologies can be noted? Among the interesting samples of equipment for soldiers, in particular the set of "Warrior". It is called the combat equipment future soldier. "Warrior" is a high - tech camouflage, consisting of several dozen security features, equipped with a thermal imager, a navigation system, a large number of sensors. A soldier wearing Ratnik, automatic, machine gun or rifle with night vision sight. Another notable sample outfit jewelry - costume 6Б48 designed for tankers. It is characterized by a high degree of protection of the soldier's body from the debris. The suit is well padded armored headset.
But back to the robots. There is information that Russian weapons of the future on the basis of robotic development will be delivered to the army so that on its basis it was possible to complete the entire company. Among the promising applications of the machines - the protection of rocket launchers. Also, as expected, the robots can perform reconnaissance tasks, to participate in combat operations.
It Can be noted that, for example, in the United States the latest military equipment in the form of robots with the purpose of protection of military facilities are also actively used. In particular, the machine MDARS is designed to control the territories on which are located nuclear facilities. The Americans are also actively pursuing unmanned technology.
In the environment of modern experts, there is a discussion concerning whether it is accented to develop the robotics industry in the direction of give the car a maximum of autonomy. Americans, in particular, that while not too fond of, believing that even the advanced, the latest development of weapons of this type are unable to fully correct to take decisions in the conditions of real combat missions.
Of Course, the Autonomous robots in the armies of different countries of the world now apply. About Russian samples we have already said. It can be noted, the Israeli development - unmanned Harpy. In automatic mode it can find, in particular enemy radar.
What advantages can have a robot in battle, if you compare its features and capabilities with technology driven people? First of all, this is in many cases significantly more efficient destruction of targets. The fact that shooting from a portable weapon, the soldier commits a large percentage of misses. Modern robots can waste ammunition much more effective.
The Next aspect - the robot does not get tired. Its performance does not depend on the time of day. Assuming of course that there are resources to recharge his batteries. Robots, provided quality crafted FOR usually less mistaken when performing similar tasks.
In turn, the potential errors during complex operations among the main disadvantages of robots. In a real fight there are a lot of nuances of a psychological nature. Even the most modern robots not take them into account in condition. For example, it is unlikely that the machine will be able to recognize the desire of the enemy to surrender in a captivity or to distinguish a military man from a civilian on circumstantial evidence - the presence of cuts, shapes, etc. of Course, these nuances are relevant for machines of the Autonomous type. Controlled robots, one way or another, make key decisions according to the commands of the person.
What is he, a military robot of the future? If we take into consideration the realistic scenario, as suggested by Russian experts, the similar car will be characterized primarily by the presence of pronounced competitive advantage over the human aspect of the perception of the environment. This can be, for example, the ability to see objects at greater distances, see objects of smaller size, have night vision, the ability to detect infrared and ultraviolet waves.
In turn, the technology platform on which to operate robot land, air, and water will be determined by the specificity of combat tasks.
It is possible, experts believe that the model for certain types of troops solution would be an Android robot that can replace soldiers in all the main areas of combat operations. That is, if necessary, to take a gun, get behind the controls of an airplane, tank, etc. In this application, an independent robotic platforms can become less effective solutions.
In turn, self-propelled complexes is likely to find its use, if challenged to counteract appropriate type weapons of the enemy, in battles in which human involvement is not expected. To fight in this case would be only robots.
Actually, now separate the trend of the world of robotics - design and production of machines which propose to replace them in the solution of individual tasks of the person. So there were known, thanks to media attention, the fighting robot of Russia, which was developed by the specialists of the Central research Institute of precision engineering. The machine, presented to President of the Russian Federation, belongs to a class of robotic androids.
Managed the development of a person. That is, this robot is not Autonomous. Machine capabilities - shooting, and management of certain types of transport, in particular, the ATV. There is information about what the robot is an adaptation of another design, which is intended for use in space - manipulator SAR-401, which has a copy of human movements using manipulators and at the same time capable of capturing small objects.
The Interesting story of a robot that has become, as some pundits suggest, the prototype of "Android" shown to the President. A few years ago, Russian researchers decided to create a machine that could be used when conducting rescue operations. The promising development was to have a wide range of functions - that would distinguish her from the other ones, characterized by, according to some experts, a certain narrowness of application. However, definite facts, which would speak about the continuity of SAR-401 robot, which was presented to the President, at the disposal of the wider public has not yet come.
Advanced combat robot Russia, able to ride a Quad bike among the most advanced developments in the world, but it has analogues. In particular, the U.S. Agency DARPA, known for having invented the core concepts that formed the backbone of the Internet, have developed a robot-Android named ATLAS. Thus, the development of new technologies in the field of robotics is held, according to many experts, the world trend.
What would be the actual use of machinery, similar to that developed by the Russian Institute of precise mechanical engineering? First of all, it is worth noting the fact that a significant amount of device features presented to the President, classified. The fact that the robot is able to ride an ATV and shoot - not all of its features, is believed by many professionals. However, experts believe that such a device has yet to improve, mainly in the aspect of tasks in an uncertain environment - one that is peculiar to the real fighting.
What is the degree of readiness of the Russian robotic school actively, keeping up with Western colleagues, and even ahead of them, to implement new military development? Expert opinions vary on this. There are experts who believe that the Western robotics industry is significantly ahead of the Russian. It has to do with funding, especially in 90-e years, when he laid the scientific basis for the current development and level of infrastructure. In turn, there are experts who believe that Russian designers in no way inferior to the representatives of the Western robotics school.
Proof of That - not only combat robot Russia, which was presented to the President. Our country has all the resources for training robotics industry, primarily at the academic level. In universities there is a profile for this area of specialty. The Russian engineers successfully developing robots not only for the defense industry, but also machines for civilian use. Anyway, there is every reason to say that combat robot Russia, managing the ATV is one of the first examples of the successful implementation of the design concepts of engineers of the Russian Federation.
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