Agriculture are a special kind of activity aimed at the cultivation, processing and manufacturing of products and provision of related services. Its main industries are livestock and crop production. How developed is the agriculture as the industry of a particular country, depends largely on the welfare of its people.
Land in our country a lot and, apparently, all the prerequisites for the successful development of this direction of agriculture are available. Unfortunately, Russia is located geographically in such a way that climatic conditions and various environmental factors in this plan restrict seriously enough. The growing industry of agriculture in our country is quite a promising direction, however, only by using new technologies and careful attitude to nature.
Only 35% of Russian land is located in a temperate climate, well suited for growing crops such as rye, wheat, oats, buckwheat etc. a Huge square in the Arctic circle for crop production did not fit. In addition, large areas in our country is the taiga, where the cultivation of the earth – a process, which is also associated with a huge number of difficulties.
At the moment the main directions of the agriculture in Russia include:
So, the basic industry of agriculture in our country – animal husbandry and agriculture. Geographically Russia is located in several climatic zones. Crop production, and in particular on the diversity of compositions of planted crops, this cause has an impact first of all.
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So, wheat-sensitive thermal regimes, nutrient prefer loamy soil, quite drought-resistant crops grown mainly in the steppe and forest-steppe zones. Habitat area less finicky rye has wider boundaries. Corn was distributed to almost all agricultural areas of the country – from the cold Northern areas to the dry South.
Different types of crops are also common in different areas. The sunflower, for example, grows very well in arid regions. The only thing - to obtain good yields of this culture should be planted only on sufficiently fertile soils. Sunflower is grown mostly in the steppe and forest-steppe regions of the European part of the country. Sugar beets, on the contrary, is very demanding and humidity level. So it has spread mainly in the Central and Western regions of the forest zone.
Vegetable production involves a huge number of crops, attributable to different biological species. So well developed it almost the entire agricultural territory of Russia. The most common crops in open farming are cabbage, tomatoes, pumpkin, onions, beets and carrots. They are grown on an industrial scale most often in places where there is access to water – on the banks of lakes, rivers and reservoirs. The major centers of vegetable growing has developed in the lower reaches of the Volga and the don and the North Caucasus.
Gardening – is also an important direction in the field of agriculture. Agriculture associated with the cultivation of fruit and berry crops, also received a huge spread, especially in the European part (Volga region, Krasnodar Krai). The greatest diversity of fruit crops is in the North Caucasus. Very many orchards also bred in Bashkiria and Altai.
The industry also for our country is promising. Suffice it to recall that prior to the crisis of the last century she was one of the leading. Characteristics of agriculture in this case would be incomplete without a brief excursion into history. In the Soviet Union, the livestock, and particularly cattle, was developed very well. However, the economic crisis of the subsequent years has had on this area more than a negative impact. Only from 1991 to 2005 the number of cattle decreased from 54,7 to 21.4 million tons. According to the results of the same 2005, the livestock in the country was considered unprofitable. Sothe increase in the imports of this product.
But at the moment, agriculture as a sector of the economy (including livestock) in our country can be considered more or less profitable. To some extent this is due to the development of private farms.
So, what are the main areas presented in this case agriculture? Agriculture in animal husbandry the following:
Industry and agriculture are linked to each other directly. It concerns, of course, including livestock. Without a well-developed pig farming and cattle breeding, for example, is unlikely to be particularly profitable in the food industry. If the government will not pay attention to such industries as farming and sheep breeding, the population will remain without its own warm things.
Placement and specialization of the given direction are determined primarily by the availability of forage resources for a particular group of animals. That is, animal industry agriculture, though less than the crop, extent, but also depends on natural and climatic factors.
Intensive dairy farming in our country developed mostly in the European part and in the upper reaches of the Volga and the Dnieper. This is mainly Moscow and Yaroslavl region. This direction is typical for the South St. Petersburg area. Breed of cattle in other regions of the European part of the country, as well as in the southern regions of Siberia in the Urals. However, in this case we are talking mostly about the meat and dairy cattle breeding direction. Spread it to the North – the greater part of Siberia, but in these areas it is mostly extensive in nature. In the same polar areas great progress has been reindeer breeding. Most cattle are bred in the Urals, in the Volga and Central regions and Northern Caucasus.
A Very wide spread of small ruminants in our country got in the Volga region, Northern Caucasus, the Urals and in Eastern Siberia. Well-developed ocenochnoe production in the Central regions of the European part of Russia. Pigs involved in almost the entire country. To a lesser degree, this direction is developed in the far East.
In Addition to climate and weather conditions on the development of livestock and crop production in any state can be influenced by the following factors:
All branches of agriculture of Russia, in addition to the above factors are directly dependent on environmental conditions. Unfortunately, in our country the predatorya relationship to the wealth of nature and mismanagement has led to a significant deterioration of the situation in this regard.
In the steppe and forest-steppe zones of the ecological balance is severely disturbed mainly due to wind and water erosion. Meanwhile, the experience of creating ecologically sustainable landscapes was built in the late 19th century by V. V. Dokuchaev in the Voronezh region, in the tract of steppe Stone. Now here is scientific research Institute of agriculture. This experience should definitely use today.
The disruption of the ecological balance in the deciduous forest and restaino zones typically associated with drainage of wetlands, and uncontrolled deforestation.
Fortunately, at the moment the situation in our country in this regard is beginning to change. The most important task of the newly established science – economy of nature management is not only assessment of the state of the environment in light of the possibility of its use, and forecasting the development of ecological systems, attempts to foresee the future and be able to manage them today. Of course, such an approach to the basic industry of agriculture will have a more than salutary effect.
The Main methods of ecologization of modern land use at the moment, be the preservation of the biological organisms and the creation of natural organic fertilizers on the basis of fungi, bacteria and algae. The science of biology, humus, – are the future of agriculture.
The Latest developments in this field are being introduced in all branches of agriculture in Russia today. For example, in the Krasnodar region are used bezgrebelny production technology of rice and corn. In some farms of the Omsk region the rejection of the use of pesticides and the use of new technologies of farming have led to a significant increase in yield.
New methods can include, for example:
The plans are awaiting implementation in the near future, can be attributed to the introduction of integrated and comprehensive environmental monitoring. That is, monitor its response to human activities, and taking appropriate measures in advance. Of course, this will have a positive impact on agriculture. Agriculture – livestock and crop production will become profitable.
Reviving the livestock and crop production in Russia, certainly, should pay attention to the experience of those countries where these industries developed very well. As an example, Germany is often cited. At present, the development of agriculture in this country is paid a lot of attention. The profitability of all its structures heavily affected by the flawless and the most sophisticated organization as well as the rational and careful use of natural resources.
In Central Germany and southern this country's agricultural production are mostly owners of small farms. This situation causes a healthy competition is a powerful stimulus for the introduction of new techniques. Agriculture Germany – livestock and crop production – bring the country huge profits.
We Have the same in the country of implementation of most projects, and development of new technologies in farming and agriculture will largely depend on the perfection of the legislative base in the near future. Reasonable management and conservation of natural resources should become a priority task of the state. Perhaps in the future structure of the industry of agriculture of Russia will resemble the German. However, at the moment the main share of the food we have in the country produce a rather large agricultural organizations.
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