Synthetic polymers

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2020-07-02 22:51:07

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Today, without the use of a variety of polymers, perhaps, impossible to imagine none of the current production. They won the dominant place in heavy industry and construction, and in light and food industries. What is this miraculous material?

What is polymers

Polymer – it is a macromolecular substance consisting of periodically repeating chain structures (monomers). Such units in the polymer chain can be incredibly much. Their interaction is via covalent bonds, which contribute to the formation of macromolecules.

Polymers can be organic or inorganic origin. In organic molecular compounds required the presence of carbon, which is fundamental to inorganic or synthetic structures. Organic polymeric compounds are ORGANOMETALLIC, carbon-chain and heterochain.

In addition, polymers are classified more on natural, artificial and synthetic. And organic monocapa with the help of certain chemical reactions get artificial macromolecular compounds. For example, wool or cotton by chemical process becomes artificial polymer fibers.

And what the distinctive features of synthetic polymers from synthetic? Modern technological process allows the artificial creation or synthesizing polymers without using organic matter, i.e. formation of artificial materials. Synthetic polymers are obtained by simple synthesis of low-molecular substances or from other synthetic polymeric substances.

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Classification of polymers

Conditional systematization divides them into the following groups:

1. Natural animal polymers used by mankind for a long time. Examples are: gelatin, glycogen.

2. Natural plant polymers, which we also know. This starch, caoutchouc, lignin and cellulose.

3. Natural mineral polymers – it is widely used silica or a mineral quartz, called rock crystal. Painted crystal becomes a precious stone – a amethyst. In powdered form it turns into the familiar sand.

4. Artificial polymer made of organic monomers. Of the substance of cellulose with polyesters leaching manufactured: ethyl cellulose, benzyltoluene, and methylcellulose, used in the paint industry. Many of these substances are made from wool, leather, fur, silk, etc.

5. Synthetic polymers that are widely used in many production industries, has developed rapidly. For example, in light industry are created of woven and knitted fabrics of such synthetic fibers as polyester, nylon, polypropylene, acrylic. They are very strong and almost indelible. Synthetic polymers represent the main part of the fibres of these tissues, obtained by polycondensation of certain chemicals acids with such substances as ethylene glycol, hexamethylenediamine, polyolefin or polyacrylonitrile. Therefore, the basic qualities of polymers,"ancestors" is passed and a completely new prisoedineniya. The result is a very light and elastic materials with low thermal conductivity, resistant to chemical, physical and atmospheric influences.

Thanks to the many valuable properties, synthetic polymers have found applications not only in textile industry but also in medicine, cosmetic and perfume industry, agriculture, automotive, construction, household and other fields.

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