Metals surround us always and everywhere. Today it is an integral part of many things that we use every day. Simply look around the room in which you are to understand that this is true.
From a school bench we know that all these minerals, the materials are divided into two groups-ferrous and non-ferrous metals. Which of them are which group, we will find out. What metals exist on our planet?
The category of "ferrous" is the iron and all alloys that now exist. Pure iron is found is that only in research laboratories. It is mainly steel.
This type of metal is formed by compounds of iron with carbon and add additional elements that give the obtained metal certain properties required in a particular industry (e.g., magnetic).
As a rule, in the production of ferrous metals are several standard phases: ore mining and processing in the blast furnace. Then it turns out the iron, from which subsequently receive any kinds of steel and iron alloys. The latter often used in heavy industry. In contrast, non-ferrous metals —it's a softer substance with a few other properties, they are used in another area.
In the cast iron part of 93% iron and about 3-5% carbon, plus trace elements of small quantities. This material is rarely used for production, as has the fragility. It can be found in the manufacture of certain types of pipes, valves, or same valves. But most of the produced amount of iron (90%) is processed into steel.
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Principal steels which made of iron is: carbon and low carbon (tempered) steel, stainless steel, ferrite-chrome, chrome, martensitic-chromium, chrome vanadium, alloy, Nickel, tungsten, molybdenum and manganese steel.
In its pure form, this element of the periodic table in earth's crust is contained in quite small quantities (only 5.5%). But it very much in the various iron ores.
The Most significant deposits (stock is more than 30 trillion tons) are the layers of ferruginous quartzite, whose age is more than two billion years. They are widespread mainly in such places as South and North America, Africa, India and Western Australia.
Another large group of metals, unlike the previous, has softer characteristics, they are more ductile, have thermal and electrical conductivity, corrosion resistance and many others.
Non-ferrous metals — a joint name of all metals and their alloys except iron. They can still be called “non-ferrous metals" that would be fair.
Non-ferrous metals are:
- gold, silver, platinum (precious metals);
- aluminum, titanium, magnesium, lithium, beryllium (lung);
- copper, tin, lead, zinc, cobalt, Nickel (heavy);
- niobium, molybdenum, zirconium, chromium, tungsten (refractory);
- indium, gallium, thallium (scattered);
- scandium, yttrium and all the lanthanides (rare earths);
- radium, technetium, actinium, polonium, thorium, France, uranium, and transuranic elements (radioactive).
Non-ferrous metals and widely used in machinery, chemical industry, construction and many other areas of production. Thanks to technological progress, the sphere of application of this material is constantly expanding, and the technology of extraction of metals continue to improve.
Over time, the use of non-ferrous metals increased, which caused the discovery of new elements and names. More metals have been used in production. In the early 20th century was used about 15 items, and in 50 years – two times more. Today used more than 70 different metals, which is the most among currently known.
The Growth of demand for heavy non-ferrous metals was due to the growing needs of the military industry (for the production of ammunition), but the group of light used in the aerospace and space industry.
A Group of noble ancient times massively used for making jewelry and ornaments. In the 90-ies of the 20th century, 78% gold 36% platinum and 15% silver was used for these purposes. If you take the other areas where the use of noble non-ferrous metals, — is an electronic manufacturing (gold contacts in devices), car production (about 43% of platinum), and silver was used for the manufacture of film and photographic materials.
Each of the metals of this group possess properties that determine most of it belongs to her. It also makes use of non-ferrous metals in many areasindustry.
So, for example, most of them characterized by a high heat capacity and thermal conductivity, which gives them the ability to cool rapidly after welding. There is a reverse side to this: when working with such metals as magnesium and copper you need to heat them up just prior to welding and during the process it is necessary to apply a strong heat, so they are not cooled.
Another typical feature is the decrease in mechanical properties. It was therefore necessary to carefully work with them, to avoid deformation.
Non-ferrous metals in the heating process actively react with gases. Demonstrate this property of titanium, molybdenum and tantalum.
This group of metals is able to stay long in operation, but they must be protected from oxygen which destroys metals. For this purpose the conductors, for example, covered by a protective varnish. Pre-metal amenable to the procedure of priming in two coats.
This type of ore is most abundant in the category “colored”. This metal also has the widest area of use: construction, industry, aviation, medicine, manufacturing efficient heat exchangers and many others.
Locations of copper deposits also varied. Today great importance is given to the poor of disseminated ores (porfirevna type), which are produced in the craters of volcanoes. Formed chemical element from the hot solution, which comes from the magma chambers. A large supply of this ore is located in North and South America.
Another type of copper ores-pyrite, is extracted from the bottom of the seas and oceans. Source-earth in the Urals.
And another huge source of these ores is the copper Sandstone (Chita oblast in Russia, Katanga in Africa).
Thus, non-ferrous metals – it is an indispensable material for making many things that surround us.
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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."
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