Biography of Pitirim Alexandrovich Sorokin, the author of a number of prominent sociological theories, contained in itself all the dramatic events of the first half of the twentieth century. He was a direct witness of many sharp turns of history that have befallen Russia in that era. One of the greatest sociologists the world has experienced political repression under the tsarist regime, two revolutions, civil war and exile from the country. Unfortunately, the importance of scientific works of Pitirim Sorokin was not appreciated neither in Russia nor in the United States of America, which became his second homeland. Exceptionally erudite sociologist has written dozens of books and hundreds of articles, later translated into forty-eight languages. According to many modern experts, his theory, revealing the problems and contradictions of human society, remain relevant in our days.
Future scientist and political activist born in 1889 in Vologda province. Biography of Pitirim Sorokin began in a small village called Turya. His father, a master of decoration icons, doing restoration work in the temples. The mother died of illness at the age of thirty four years. This tragedy was the first childhood memories Sorokin. Father taught Pitirim and his older brother Basil the finer points of their profession. The head of the family married a second time and tried to cope with grief from the loss of a loved one with vodka. After dad drank himself to delirium tremens, the sons left home and become itinerant artisans.
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A short biography of Pitirim Sorokin described in his book called "a long way". In his memoirs, the author recalls his younger years and describes in detail an event that became a turning point in his plight. Almost accidentally coming across an entrance examination to a special school to train teachers for Church schools, he passed the test and was enrolled. Despite the fact that living on a tiny stipend was a challenge, after two years, Sorokin has successfully completed the education. For excellent results, he was granted the opportunity to continue their education at public expense.
In 1904, Sorokin started school for the training of teachers in the Kostroma province. At that time in the Russian Empire was raging political unrest. The fermentation of minds at all times was typical of the student environment. Future sociologist joined a revolutionary group to adhere to the populist ideology. This period of the biography of Pitirim Sorokin played a significant role in shaping his worldview and value system.
Passionate nature did not allow him to remain aloof from the threat of illegal activities of the circle of the revolutionaries. As a result, the student was arrested by police on suspicion of political unreliability. Few months he spent in prison. Due to liberal attitude of the revolutionary guards, while in detention, almost freely communicated with each other and with the outside world. According to the memoirs Sorokina, time spent in prison gave me the opportunity to see the classic works of philosophers, socialists.
Freed from prison, the future famous sociologist made the decision to terminate participation in the revolutionary struggle and to devote himself to science. After a couple years of wandering around the country he was able to enroll in the law faculty of the state University in Saint-Petersburg. In the biography of Pitirim Sorokin started a new stage that offers young talent a path to the academic heights.
As a University student, he showed an amazing performance. For a short time Sorokin wrote and published numerous reviews and essays. He worked closely with a number of specialized academic journals dedicated to issues of psychology and sociology. The main achievement of this period the biography of Pitirim Sorokin was a book called "Crime and punishment, feat and reward." She received very high grades in academic circles.
Despite the hard scientific work, Sorokin returned to political activities and once again attracted the attention of the police. In order to avoid trouble on the part of the guardians of the law, he was compelled, having used a fake passport to go to Western Europe and stay there for several months. After returning to Russia scholar, wrote a pamphlet critical of the monarchical state structure. This has led to a new arrest. Sorokin managed to escape from prison through the intercession of his mentor, Maxim Kovalevsky, who was a Deputy of the Duma.
After graduation, the talented Russian scientist lectured in sociology and was preparing to obtain the title of Professor. In the world war period he continued to publish in a large number of his literary works, among which was one fantastic story. The thesis prevented the outbreak of the revolution.
In the dramatic 1917, Sorokin married to Elena Baratynskii, hereditary noblewoman from the Crimea. They met at aliterary evenings. The pair were destined to share all the joys and sorrows and stay together until the end of life.
In the brief biography of Pitirim Alexandrovich Sorokin is impossible to mention all events, a witness and a direct participant of which he had become in the turbulent years of the collapse of the Russian Empire. Scientist, assisted in the work of the Interim government and even performed the duties of Secretary of the Prime Minister Alexander Kerensky. Sorokin before others saw a serious threat to the Bolshevik party and demanded the application of strict measures for strengthening and stabilization of the situation in the country.
After the October revolution he joined the struggle against the Soviet power and took part in attempting its overthrow in the Arkhangelsk region. Sorokin was arrested by the Bolsheviks and sentenced to death. However, in exchange for a public promise to refuse political activity he not only saved lives, but were given back their freedom. Sorokin resumed its scientific and teaching work at the University. After the Civil war he received the title of Professor and successfully defend a doctoral dissertation in sociology.
In 1922 he began mass arrests of intellectuals on suspicion of dissent and disloyal attitude to the Bolshevik government. Among the detainees, the Moscow Extraordinary Commission was Sorokin. Arrested and offered a simple choice: either to be shot or to leave the Soviet Union. Doctor of sociological Sciences and his wife went to Germany and then to the United States of America. With them they took only two suitcases, which were the most important manuscript major works. Biography of Pitirim Sorokin from the beginning of the academic career until the moment of exile from his native country was called the Russian period of his work. The famous scientist was ever deported, but escaped physical violence and was able to continue its activities in the distant America.
In 1923, Sorokin came to the United States to give lectures about the revolutionary events in Russia. He received offers of cooperation from the universities of Minnesota, Wisconsin and Illinois. Sorokin took less than a year, in order to get fluent in English. In America, he wrote and published a book entitled "Pages from a Russian diary", which is a personal memories of a scientist about the turbulent revolutionary time.
The Work of Pitirim Sorokin created in exile, has made a significant contribution to world sociology. In just a few years of living in the US he has written many scientific papers, which outlined his theory of human society. Sorokin became a prominent figure in American academic circles and received an offer to head the Department of sociology at the world-famous Harvard University. It may seem incredible, but according to contemporaries, he continued to maintain relationships with friends who stayed in Russia, even during Stalin's repressions. After many years of fruitful work at Harvard Sorokin retired and devoted the rest of her life to horticulture. He died in 1968 at his home in Massachusetts.
Special attention of readers was attracted by the work of Pitirim Sorokin "Sociology of revolution," published shortly after moving to America. In this book he stresses the inefficiency of violent change of the state system, since in practice such actions always lead to a reduction of personal freedom and suffering of millions of people. According to the author, the revolution devalued human life and give rise to General cruelty. Alternatively, Sorokin offers a peaceful constitutional reform, pursuing not utopian, but realistic goals. The idea of one of the greatest sociologists in history has become obsolete in our time.
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