Bronchiectasis

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2018-03-22 17:32:09

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What is bronchiectasis, symptoms and other issues will be discussed in this article. Bronchiectasis implies the presence in the lungs of bronchiectasis (pathologically modified and extended to medium and small bronchi). Extending, in form they resemble cylinders. In a modified bronchial tree almost always has an element of inflammation. The pathological process usually localized in the middle and lower lobes of the lung.

Bronchiectasis is the end result of congenital anomalies of bronchial structures (lack of cartilage bronchi fibrosis syndrome Kartagener), severe pneumonia or bronchitis, which were transferred in early childhood. The cause of the disease can be reduced protective response of the bronchial tree and the immune system (failure of gamma-globulin and phagocyte activity, etc.), and other severe disease.

Bronchiectasis, by their nature, can be primary and secondary. A primary cause deformation of the bronchi is usually a congenital malformation of the tissue, which leads to thickening of the membranes of the bronchi. There is a violation of evacuation of sputum and as a consequence, the accession of secondary infection. Secondary deformation occurring as a result of any violation of the drainage function of bronchi (functional or organic). Present continuous chronic inflammation causes cicatricial changes in the walls of the bronchi.

Bronchiectasis is manifested by frequent coughing with expectoration of purulent sputum. Sometimes in adults exacerbation of bronchiectasis manifested by hemoptysis. You can listen to hard breathing, exacerbation of wheezing wet nature. Due to poor gas exchange in the lung wall, the patient is in a constant state of hypoxia. One of its characteristic manifestations is the change of fingers in the form of drum sticks and nail plate. They resemble hour glasses.

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The diagnosis helps the examination of the patient, collecting complaints. On the x-ray picture of the chest visible to the cylindrical cavity, atelectasis of the lung and reduction in size. During exacerbation of visible infiltration of tissue. Modern diagnostic techniques allow us to accurately identify the disease and the location of the pathological process. Such practices include computed tomography, performing bronhografii with contrast. It is used to clarify the extent of the process and determining the course of medicamentous or surgical treatment.

Bronchiectasis, treatment and prognosis of the disease.

The treatment of the disease depends on the prevalence of the process, the frequency and severity of exacerbations. The goal of medical treatment is normalization or improvement of the drainage function. To do this, use bronchodilators. They are fast dilatational effect, eliminating the shortness of breath and asthma, normalizing gas exchange. Bronchodilators are used in the form of aerosols for inhalation. Assigned expectorant drugs. The patient it is important to avoid hypothermia, heavy loads, exposure to allergens and infections. Outside of an exacerbation it is mandatory breathing exercises. There are a set of exercises that strengthen the body, respiratory muscles, improves circulation and activates metabolism. Massage the chest area with effleurage (postural drainage) promotes better drainage. During exacerbation with difficult expectoration perform reorganization of the bronchi using bronchoscope. Exacerbation treated in hospital.
With extensive lesions of several segments, or lobes, hypoxia, surgical treatment is shown. It is also carried out at restricted bronchiectasis and young age.

The course of the disease with proper treatment, timely surgery and rehabilitation of the cavities, in most cases has a favorable prognosis.

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