Metronidazole: reviews, instructions for use, indications, analogues

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2018-03-26 18:54:27

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In the twenty-first century, medicine has leaped forward, and it is an undeniable fact. However, this same axiom remains that in the world today there are many different diseases, to cope with which can only really strong drugs. There is also a lot of various infections in which the bacteria penetrate the human body, and to remove them requires fairly long treatment. One of the antimicrobial medicines that can help in such a difficult situation, is the cure "Metronidazole".

"Metronidazole": the description of medicine

History of the drug began in France where it appeared in the past century. Originally it had a completely different name – “the Glaygl” – and has been developed exclusively as a remedy against trichomoniasis (genitourinary system). That the drug has an antibacterial effect, learned only in the mid-20th century, and it is completely random. Currently, the drug is generally included in the list of essential medicines.

Thus, "Metronidazole" now applies not only to antibacterial means, but to Antiprotozoal (that is, struggling with the simplest). The medication is produced in different forms: there are pills "Metronidazole" of the same solution, vaginal suppositories (candles), as well as the cream and two kinds of gel-vaginal and external. In powder form the drug is difficult to be dissolved in water, in alcohol is not impossible to do.

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Composition of the drug and its effect

The Main active ingredient in the preparation of any kind is the same substance-metronidazole. Depending on what form the drug, this substance in it more or less. So, tablets "Metronidazole" contain it in an amount of 250 mg, vaginal gel his 1 gram, cream – 10 milligrams. Of course, present in the drug and various excipients in small volume – for example, the water in the gel, solution or even cream.

Metronidazole solution for infusion

"Metronidazole" gets into the various tissues and fluids in the human body-the bile, the saliva, the liver. Penetrates the medication even in breast milk but it is excreted through the kidneys and intestines. The drug provides a wide variety of influences – besides the already mentioned Antiprotozoal and antibacterial and anti-ulcer and anti-alcohol. Regarding the latter, here the effect is quite interesting: if a person suffered from alcohol dependence, and he was prescribed a medication called "Metronidazole" later he will develop an aversion to alcohol, which forms the drug.

Readings

Among the indications for the use of the above medicines – many kinds of diseases and infections. To answer the question of what cures "Metronidazole", if at least briefly review this list. First and foremost, of course, permitted medication trichomoniasis – because it is for dealing with this problem it was originally designed. Reception "Metronidazole" is indicated for the treatment of any form of this disease, including complications or chronic.

Metronidazole for diarrhea

In addition, prescribed Preparation in hepatic, cerebral or abdominal abscess, lamblia, bacterial vaginosis, meningitis, various infections of the skin or bones. This is a great tool for Troubleshooting problems associated with postoperative complications (including gynaecological); prescribe the drug in pneumonia and peritonitis, and granuloma hemorrhoids, endocarditis, and sepsis. The use of "Metronidazole" in gynecology widely. It is prescribed to women in all inflammatory processes of the uterus, such as in endometritis. Gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, osteomyelitis, colitis, sinusitis, infections of the lower respiratory tract, stomatitis – all these and many other diseases are also treatable "Metronidazole"

Contraindications

We have studied, albeit briefly, when shown "Metronidazole". Spectrum of conditions and pathologies is really huge and affects processes in many different organs, but the list of contraindications to taking the drug is also quite impressive. Of course, the drug cannot be used if there is its idiosyncrasy (or some component in the composition). We should not use the medicine people who have ever (even very long) was exposed to such disease as leukopenia (reduction of white blood cells in the blood). Prohibited the use of medicines for those suffering from disorders of coordination of movements and various lesions of the nervous system in the first place – epileptics. Hepatic insufficiency is also a contraindication to receiving "Metronidazole" however, as the need of the use of amoxicillin. Should in this situation to mention: prohibited the simultaneous use of two of these drugs to those whose age is less than eighteen years of age (for more details about the combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole is told below).

But as for drivingcar, it is not under the ban while taking the drug. Just need to be careful if you need to get behind the wheel – and indeed, in situations that require increased attention and ability to react quickly, because one of the side effects of the medication is dizziness, which is dangerous while driving a vehicle.

Side effects and overdose

Side-effects "Metronidazole" as has been said above relates to the dizziness (sometimes very strong, until he lost consciousness). In addition, have a negative impact the drug can the following: nausea and/or vomiting, will disappear altogether or decrease appetite, there will be diarrhea or constipation. Unpleasant taste in the mouth (some associate it with the taste of metal, some-blood), cramps in the intestines, cramps, irritability and/or anxiety, apathy with transition to depression, allergies and insomnia are also side effects "Metronidazole". Moreover, in the most extreme cases, possible hearing loss, disorientation in space, joint pain, frequent urination, a burning sensation in the genitals, hallucinations, excessive tearing.

If you arbitrarily increase the dosage "Metronidazole" this can lead to overdose drug. In this case, you should immediately stop taking it and consult a specialist. And pay special attention to how you feel should be in such situations, when suddenly appeared nausea and vomiting, twitching of limbs, neuropathy and impaired coordination. In severe poisoning, drug, possible epileptic seizures, even if the person has not been exposed to them.

Maternity

Is it Possible to take "Metronidazole" during pregnancy? This is perhaps one of the most troubling issues. Because we all know that during pregnancy medication “diet” the mothers it is very limited – something that is not recommended for use due to the fact that he had not studied the effects on pregnant (and understandably), something strictly forbidden, since it has a negative impact on the fetus… so can "Metronidazole" during pregnancy? Possible, but very carefully. And if specifically, in the first trimester to use the drug is strictly prohibited, since only the formation of the future child.

Metronidazole gynecological problems

In the second and third trimesters to drink the medicine only if the physician is confident that the benefits for women will be much greater than the potential harm. The fact is that the substance crosses the placenta, and therefore if possible it is better to refuse all the same from its use and access are allowed and safe medicines. Thus, in summary, it should be noted that the designation "Metronidazole" in the period of carrying a child are permissible only in the most extreme cases and only for serious and vital reasons.

The Drug during lactation

As for breastfeeding, here is the answer to the question about the possibility to drink this drug is unambiguous. We have already mentioned that metronidazole is able to penetrate into any tissues and liquids of the human body. This also applies to breast milk, which the drug gives a bitter taste. In order to avoid exposure of the medication to the baby during lactation or not prescribe this drug, or if there are no other options and make it will still have, breast-feeding should be suspended until, while undergoing treatment. But we should not think that the next day after the last intake of medication, you can resume applying the baby to the breast. Letting the product leave the body completely, it will take some time, so you should wait another day or better two before re-start breastfeeding. And in order to milk are not lost, while the baby is nursing, it is recommended to regularly Express – with this task perfectly cope breast pumps, are now available on the market in large quantity.

Children

Tablets "Metronidazole" allowed to prescribe to children at any age-even babies (of course, if they have no contraindications; besides, if the kid has problems with the kidneys, from the use of the drug should refrain). But the injection – in other words, injections – you may play only children older than five years: it is not known how safe is this treatment at an earlier age. As for the dosage of the tablet means it can vary from a half tablet to two and depends on the age of the baby.

"Metronidazole": manual

How to adopt the drug "Metronidazole" depends on a is dictated by the use of the drug causes. For example, in the case of trichomoniasis is two tablets daily for ten days (of course, this refers only to adult patients). If necessary after some time, repeat the course (not earlier than in four or six weeks). In this disease such as amebiasis (amoebic dysentery), dosage “Metronidazole" increases by exactly one appointment and is three tablets per day. If necessary, treatment Giardia(intestinal and hepatic parasites) adults and children older than ten years of drinking the medicine in exactly the same amount as trichomoniasis. If the child is less than ten, but more than six years, should give him half a tablet daily, and the child from two to five – only one. It is important to remember that kids (especially very young) it is impossible to give the entire amount of the drug immediately, you should divide it into two doses.

Outdoor gel Metronidazole

If you do not want to take pills, and to put the injection, you will need to use the drug intravenously (to assign that treatment to patients from the age of twelve) with intervals of eight hours, not more than four grams a day. The drip is administered only for a week or ten days. It is very important to check that the solution remaining after the procedure (of course if it did happen), was not used again – this is strictly prohibited.

As for the creams and gels, products for external use need twice a day in morning and evening, apply to the desired area of the skin in a thin layer for several weeks (typically three to six). Recommended to alternate, and also use in conjunction with antibiotics. But a vaginal gel inserted into the vagina (twice a day), but for only five days. The same is done with the suppositories. In the instructions to "Metronidazole" is said to enter the body as far as possible, a sharp tip forward. Treatment is carried out within seven to ten days (depending on the disease; according to this is selected and the required dosage of the medication).

To Store the drug for three years in a dry and dark place where there is no access from kids.

Recommendations and warnings

  1. In the solution "Metronidazole" has sodium, so the purpose of injecting patients, who are prone to edema, requires attention and caution.
  2. Urine may become darker color during the period of use of the medication.
  3. Treating the ‘Metronidazole" should abandon the simultaneous reception of alcohol. You can not drink alcohol and for the next two days after the last treatment.
  4. In case of prolonged treatment should regularly monitor the condition of the blood (through tests).
  5. In the treatment of trichomoniasis should refrain from conducting sexual life. Moreover, both sex partner must be treated simultaneously.
  6. Menstruation is not a reason for stopping treatment (in the case of vaginal use of funds).
  7. Using "Metronidazole" externally, it is necessary to beware of falling into the eyes, if necessary, very carefully and rinse thoroughly with water.
Metronidazole vaginal gel

Interactions with other drugs

One of the important factors in the use of one or another drug is its interaction with other drugs – as there are cases at the same time when you have to drink several tools. What drug will work "Metronidazole"?

This medication is totally incompatible with disulfiram and/or ethanol – when combined there psychosis. If you drink "Metronidazole" simultaneously with preparations containing lithium salts may impair renal function. Astemizole in combination with the above-mentioned medication issues, problems of the heart – for example, arrhythmia.

As mentioned above, the amoxicillin should not drink at the same time metronidazole to anyone who is less than eighteen years of age. But adult people the combination of these drugs in some cases quite shown. In the treatment of gastritis or ulcer, the combination of these drugs provides enhanced positive effect, since they both enhance each other's action. In addition, these drugs together are used in the elimination of chlamydia. Due to their exposure to each other and the body is practically reduced to zero the risk that settled in the body the bacteria will develop antibiotic immunity.

Similar drugs

First and foremost, you need to say about this medicinal product, as “Trihopol”. This is perhaps the most common drug in the list of analogs "Metronidazole". It is almost identical "Metronidazole" the only difference is some effect on the body. And “Trihopol" and its equivalent is prescribed in the same cases, but the first is considered more advanced than a second, and has fewer contraindications. It is not so much effect on the digestive system, absorbed quickly, and yet – is more expensive.

Analogue Trichopolum Metronidazole

To peers "Metronidazole" refers to such drug, as “Ornidazole”. He's exactly the same mechanism of action, but a slightly different composition. Among its advantages are a shorter period of treatment, and among the shortcomings-a more rigid effect on the body.

Derived from "Metronidazole" is a drug with a similar name – “Metrogyl". It is similar to his“brother”, but he has a lot of contraindications and side effects from the nervous system. That is why people suffering from any diseases in this region (especially the – epileptics) are strictly prohibited to use this medication.

Metrogyl Denta analogue of Metronidazole

Among the analogues of the above drug should be mention “Balmex” (often used as a solution), ‘Glaygl" (there are tablets, suppositories and gel), “CryoSat" (gel vaginal), “Rosamet" (cream and ointment), ‘Micogynax" (vaginal tablets) and so on.

"Metronidazole": feedback

As is often the case with any other drugs, the reviews of this medicament are totally different. Someone is helped, someone, on the contrary, no. Someone recommended him to use someone in any case. As they say, on taste, on color markers are different.

So, among the positive reviews about "Metronidazole" mention the relatively inexpensive cost of the medication – this is often the deciding factor in choosing between similar drugs. Another indisputable advantage of the drug is quickly achieved effect of treatment. Reviews about "Metronidazole" note that the clear and abstract drugs, while many medicines that can not boast. People say that is the first tool in the home medicine Cabinet in the fight against diarrhoea.

The negative reviews of "Metronidazole" there are comments on his strong side effects. Nausea, bitter taste in mouth, dizziness – is not a complete list of things that describe people. It is noteworthy that those who speaks positively about the drug, and those who voted in the negative, it is recommended not to self-medicate, and to take the medicine only as directed doctor or, at least, after a detailed consultation.

The answer to the question that treat "Metronidazole", found, and known contraindications, and side effects of the drug and its dosage. And to use it or not-everyone decides for himself.

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