Cleft lip: causes


2018-03-19 19:38:18




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At the end of the first month of pregnancy the baby's mouth is formed from two separate halves that grow next to each other. Somewhere from sixth to eighth week, they are joined together to form the upper jaw. Further, the seam runs forward and backward to seal the lips with tongue. By the tenth week of pregnancy, the mouth is fully formed and the nose has acquired a familiar structure and location.

cleft lip causes

Cleft lip is a birth defect where the upper lip of the child is fully formed and has a hole. Cleft palate - the same congenital anomaly in which the sky of the unborn child is not formed completely, and has a hole. Some children with cleft lip have only a small notch on the upper lip. Others have a full open hole, which passes through the upper jaw to the lower part of the nose. The anomaly can occur on one or both sides of the mouth of the child. This congenital defect is called oral cleft, or cleft lip. In children the causes of its emergence to this day unknown.

The Defects and the conditions for their development vary in severity and extent, with variations:

  • Cleft lip (defect of the lip).
  • Cleft palate (a defect of the sky).
  • Cleft lip and palate (both defect).
  • Microform fissure (a crack or scar).
  • Unilateral cleft (one side of the lip and palate).
  • Bilateral cleft (both sides of lip and palate).

Cleft lip and cleft palate: causes

The causes of harelip, cleft palate and other facial anomalies are not well understood, but they are directly related to changes in the genes of the child. It is believed that 25% of new cases of heredity, up to 15% of chromosomal anomalies and 60% external causes of children born with cleft palates. The tendency to deformation can be inherited from one or both parents. The potential for disease development increases when it happens to family members of the same family.


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causes of cleft lip cleft palate

Other factors that can affect genes, leading to splitting are viruses, certain medications, diet, and environmental toxins. Recent studies have identified Smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy as risk factors for the development of cleft lip and palate and other congenital defects. In addition, the presence of diabetes significantly increases the risk of having a baby with cleft lip with or without palate. Drug use and intoxication can also cause these birth defects. Cleft lip and palate may occur along with other congenital anomalies. This can lead to a number of difficulties in everyday life. Infants often are born with cleft in the lip or the sky, if their relatives had the disease, or they have a history there are other congenital defects.

Genetics and heredity

To this day the true causes of cleft palate and lip is unknown, but doctors believe that the defects occur due to genetic and environmental factors. Genetics can play a role in the development of diseases such as cleft lip. The causes may combine several factors. If one or both parents had this deviation, this greatly increases the manifestation of the anomaly and the child. What kind of lifestyle you lead during pregnancy may also increase the likelihood of developing abnormalities in your baby.

So, why developing a disease such as cleft lip? Pictures, causes and treatment methods will help to understand better about this disease.

  • Exposure to phenytoin or drug use during pregnancy increases the risk of anomalies in 10 times and more.
  • Smoking during pregnancy increases the chance of defect in 2 times.
  • The Use of alcohol, anticonvulsant drugs or retinoic acid provokes birth defects, which include cleft lip and palate
  • During pregnancy a deficiency of vitamins, especially folic acid, can also cause the development of craniofacial anomalies.

cleft lip and cleft palate causes

There are many factors, which are concerned about cleft lip children. Reason, photos of this disease to understand the seriousness of the situation. A cleft palate can develop as an isolated birth defect or as part of a larger genetic syndrome that may lead to more serious vices.


During pregnancy what the mother is eating and drinking, is critical for development of her unborn child. Vitamins and nutrients do to the growing organism through the mother's blood. But between a woman and her future baby has a strong protective shell, called the placenta. It misses some toxic substances and protects the child in the womb. While the placenta is really good filters out toxins and other dangerous chemicals can pass through this barrier and get into the blood stream of the fetus.

Disease cleft lip causes is genetic, so during pregnancy you should carefully monitor their health.

Toxic substances

Harmful substances such as pesticides and mercury, can enter through the blood to the child, thereby cause serious violations in itsdevelopment. In 2004 a special environmental working group examined the umbilical cord blood of ten newborns. The researchers found an average of 200 industrial chemicals and pollutants. 180 of these compounds are known carcinogens.
There is a theory that the human organism was formed long before the development of the most harmful chemicals. Our body is simply not able to recognize and neutralize such elements.cleft lip in children the reasonsIn any case, the health community is convinced that some of these chemicals contribute to the development of birth defects. Foreign scientists found that certain areas of genes in chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 8, 13 and 15 are connected with the formation of cleft in the sky and the lip. This study took an important step to better understand the causes of diseases, genetic and environmental.

What to do to prevent the anomaly?

Some researchers suggest that taking folic acid during pregnancy can reduce the chances of developing in the child such abnormalities. The substance is contained in most multivitamins. It is known that folic acid does reduce the risk of another unrelated birth defect.

What chemicals can affect the development of the defect?

To find Out which substances lead to a diagnosis, is quite a difficult task.
The Occurrence of such defects as cleft lip, reason is different, but basically it's a combination of genetic factors and environmental toxins. Genes may initiate abnormal development, but they need a little push from the outside world.

cleft lip causes

Medicines, which, according to experts, can cause crevices.

  • Vasoactive drugs that increase or decrease blood pressure (“Pseudo” and “Aspirin”).
  • Anti-epileptic drugs, such as “ ... ” and “Phenytoin”. Some researchers believe that the cause, in fact, is the epilepsy, not the medications used to treat
  • “Isotretinoin” or “accutane” – the medication taken for the treatment of severe manifestations of acne (acne). Do not take "accutane" during pregnancy. It is important to avoid pregnancy during the course of the use of the drug and for months after.
  • Corticosteroids, such as "Hydrocortisone” and “Eye”. The use of these drugs during pregnancy can lead to the diagnosis of ‘cleft lip". Reasons can also serve as risk factors during pregnancy.

There are several complications that can affect babies and children with cleft lip or palate.

Poor feeding

Because Of an anatomic defect in the process of breastfeeding can be quite difficult for newborns. Abnormal separation of the upper lip makes feeding uncomfortable. Such an anomaly is impossible to get a good seal, which is necessary for the successful flow of the process. The usual teats for feeding bottles pose the same problem. However, there are specialized utensils, which contribute to the effective power.
cleft lip children causes photoChildren with cleft palate typically are equipped with removable artificial sky from the beginning of life. This device limits the possibility of penetration of liquid into the nostrils, and also facilitates the ability to suck from a specialized nipple.

Ear infection or partial hearing loss

Children with cleft palate often have infections of the ears, and associated fluid accumulation in the inner part of the eardrum. To limit these problems, most children with cleft palate have a probe (tube) is drawn through the eardrum during the first months of life.


As expected, the developmental abnormalities associated with the sky and the lip can affect the articulation. The most common problem usually is the quality of the voice. Corrective surgery can help reduce these speech problems, but most children with cleft lip or palate benefit from voice therapy with a speech therapist.

Dental problems

Children with cleft lip or palate often have problems with lack of, or distorted structure of the teeth and usually require orthodontic treatment. If the upper jaw has a malfunction, for example, improper placement and positioning of the permanent teeth, the situation requires maxillofacial surgery.

Treatment of cleft lip and cleft palate

Doctors can now diagnose the anomaly on the basis of ultrasonic indications is already on 18 week of pregnancy. Diagnosis cleft in the sky is more difficult, as it is hidden inside the mouth. After diagnosis, doctors can perform a procedure in which amniotic fluid is extracted to test for the presence of genetic syndrome. To determine the cleft at an early stage and to formulate the correct treatment, usually requires extensive team of specialists.

causes birth of children with cleft palates


Correction of the cleftsurgically usually occurs after 7 weeks of life a newborn. This type of surgery refers to plastic surgery. If the nose of a child affected by changes due to this defect, rhinoplasty may be necessary. Children born with cleft lips usually require ongoing therapy with a variety of specialized treatments to achieve full recovery.

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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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