The structure of the sewing machine and working principle


2018-03-18 23:10:40




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There are a great many manufacturers of equipment for sewing. Modern cars differ from each other in terms of functionality, equipment and power. Appliances are usually compact and easy to operate, can not be said about massive options industrial sewing machines. However, whatever the model, the structure of the sewing machine is almost always the same.

Today we look at what is involved and how work units that are designed to create textiles. Examine examples of modern technology, and also remember the device sewing machines «Seagull" (Podolsk). Such devices are still used by many masters.

the structure of the sewing machine

Significant difference

We Begin our review with the fact that point out one fundamental difference in the different sewing machines. It consists in the fact that there are models with different type of management. They are divided into the following types:

  • Equipment with electric drive;
  • Hand held sewing machine;
  • Machine with a mechanical treadle.

The First most user friendly. Device sewing machines with electric drive elementary. Master, you just need to press on the pedal to bring engine cars in action. What great strength this applies seamstress, the higher torque at start-up and the faster the motor.

Manage the sewing mechanism can be performed without using current. In this case, you need one hand to scroll through the flywheel, and the other to send the fabric. These machines are now used rarely, but the wizard is not in a hurry to get rid of obsolete equipment, and we will tell you why. This is often the equipment of the Soviet and European production ("Seagull", "singer"). The structure of the sewing machine with manual control will be presented in a separate section.


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Foot of the machine more practical and convenient compared to manual, mainly due to the fact that both hands of a master free. This greatly facilitates the workflow. However, sewing with them requires the tailor to be able to use the mechanism of the machine and to continuously monitor its speed.

the structure of the sewing machine the Seagull

Basic principle

So, what is a sewing machine? Inexperienced tailor can confuse the abundance of levers, keys and buttons on the device, but what can we say about its internal content? The external structure of sewing machine is usually quite simple, and after one or two usages novice master knows it.

The Device consists of a motor and axis that coordinates the movement of the three shafts. They provide for the operation of the whole mechanism. All of these processes-the specificity of the technique, the seamstress is usually enough to know about how to manage these processes from the outside.

So, the internal mechanism of the cars are always dressed in the case. Modern models it is most often white plastic, an old technique of the sample can be made of metal. The housing of the sewing machine portable. In any statement it has information on how to remove the front panel to be able to troubleshoot basic problems:

  • Bulb replacement;
  • Debugging nicepictures;
  • Fix instruments, etc.

The Seamstress can adjust other parameters, such as thread tension and stitch length. There are standard factory settings, calculated that the work will be used by the average tissue thickness and normal thread of No. 20 or No. 40. Nevertheless very often work with other materials. Below the lines in these cases were without flaws, you need to manually change the tension of the thread and select the appropriate thickness of the thread.

the structure of the manual sewing machines

The Shuttle mechanism

At the bottom of the machine there is a removable table that hides her “heart” - Shuttle. Coordinated work of the upper and lower mechanisms and provides the process of sewing. Centrifugal shaft located on the right side of the device and the housing, looks like a big wheel, it drives the axis, through which simultaneously occur three interrelated processes:

    1. Movement of the needle with simultaneous pulling of the thread from the spool.
    2. Automatic promotion fabric.
    3. Connecting rod joints for movement of the needle and capture the lower thread upper.

If the action described in the last paragraph, is not established, the operation of the machines fails. The device of the sewing machine assumes its setting with accuracy down to the millimeter. The distance between the needle tip and the nose of the Shuttle, rotating with the connecting rod of the mechanism at their point of closest approach should be minimal. That is, the needle approaches the Shuttle so close that she could grab the bottom thread, but it is not allowed to contact them.

the external structure of sewing machine

Build machine

A Standard household sewing machine is simple. The first picture is schematic model cars with basic options and a minimal set of functions. The structure of the sewing machine such a sample is:

  • Flywheel;
  • Winder;
  • Holder for spools;
  • Thread guide;
  • Pottageville threads;
  • Presser foot;
  • Needle
  • Plate-engine to tissue;
  • Retractable table;
  • Reverse key;
  • Regulators thread tension, stitch length, the lever lines.

Also, most sewing machines equipped with a smart holder for thread, extra removable pads and a set of commonly used needles. Pedal to actuate the motor device is standard.

 the structure of the sewing machine singer

Modern version

Sewing machines new sample multifunction. Manufacturers make their equipment so that it served not only a minimal set of lines, but also had some features. This can be a knife for trimming fabric, working on the principle of the serger, then the structure of the sewing machine is a little different from standard models. It can be trimmed retractable table, it has a different appearance when the standard presser foot is changed for a fixture with a knife.

Also slightly differently arranged pattern sewing machines which are mounted electronic chip. The management are in with the miniature panel. It consists of a small display, which displays information about which mode is currently working device, and control buttons. With their help, the seamstress picks the best settings for the machine:

  • Lines;
  • Stitch length;
  • Speed.

Electronics are also often equipped models with narrow functionality: embroidery and knitting machines, sergers, coverage.

How does an industrial sewing machine?

This type of technology is designed for the production of textiles on a large scale. They are more powerful and durable compared to household models. Therefore, the structure of the sewing machine of the industrial design has significant differences.

First of all, this device is immobile. The cars are mounted on a special table, and the whole structure is solid and indivisible. Master debug technique is very accurate and adjusts her work on the execution of a function. Because of this home sewing machine is rarely used. Seamstresses, who sew items of different material, need to be more versatile technique.

Difference of vertical and horizontal spool

In recent years, gaining increasing popularity of the sewing machine, equipped with horizontal Shuttle device. Usually the Shuttle is positioned vertically. To remove it from the machine, you need to open a special panel and pull the tail, get the device, which is inserted into the bobbin. This process is sometimes very slow work, because the master doesn't see how much thread is left on the small spool and can be checked only by stopping the sewing.

The bobbin is placed in the horizontal Shuttle device, always in sight. It is located directly under the work table and is closed by a plate of impact-resistant plastic. Through it is possible to visually estimate the amount of thread on the bobbin.

device for sewing machines

Handheld sewing machine

In our country is often called "the Seagull" of the model is 2M. It is sometimes called ‘Podolki” (the name of the plant “Podolsk”, which made this technique). The structure of the manual the sewing machine looks very simple, but in fact, to make repair of this device is not everyone's strength, but because in a disassembled or broken form it is still preserved in many homes.

Sewing needs, bringing the mechanism into motion with the right hand. To do this, first clockwise made a few turns less centrifugal wheel, and then had to twist large, equipped with a handle, but in the opposite direction.

Cars were allowed to do the basic stitches and their length can be varied. Regime change of the sewing was done by using metal presser foot, located on the sleeve of the device.

The Main reasons that this sewing machine not only survived, but are still in use, its reliability and quality of work. With their help it is possible to grind even very GRU...

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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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