Studying the history of the United States, any attentive reader will note that the least studied is the time of the presidency of Gerald Ford. But after the Second world war, this period in the life of a mighty power was perhaps the most tragic.
In fact, rising crime and the economic crisis has increased tensions in society. Also a growing number of citizens losing confidence in the power structures and frustrated in American society. The Vietnam war and its end inglorious for the us government exacerbated the situation.
Despite this, President Ford has managed, thanks to the calm and balanced character, to restore the trust of citizens to the presidential power and strengthen the hope for a better future. During his presidency, in 1975, was performed by a joint Soviet-American flight under the program "Soyuz-Apollo" with the docking of spacecraft. The preparation for this event began under Nixon. In addition, while the United States celebrated the 200 year anniversary of the American Declaration of independence.
However it was not enough to raise the prestige of the Republican party, undermined by the Watergate scandal, which did not allow Gerald Ford to become President for a second term.
Gerald Rudolph Ford, thirty-eighth President of the United States, who held the post from 1973 to 1976, he was born July 14, 1913. This event occurred in Omaha, Nebraska. The boy's name was Leslie Lynch king. After a short period of time the family broke up. The mother of the future head of the Oval office, Dorothy king a second time married. This time her lover was a dealer Gerald Rudolph Ford, a native of her hometown of Grand springs. Thus, Leslie Lynch king, he has become one, thanks to his stepfather, Gerald Rudolph Ford.
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In childhood, the young Gerald was an eagle scout, in the hierarchy of this organization, he reached the top and received the highest rank of a scout-eagle. In the school football team the teenager and then the young man was a captain. Playing football he threw and in the period of study at the University of Michigan.
After Completing this Alma mater in 1935, the young man continued his education at the law school of Yale University. Graduation – 1941.
U.S. entry into the Second world war Gerald Ford got on special courses, where the military instructors engaged in personnel training.
In 1943, Ford instructor's career ended, and he to 1946, he served on the aircraft carrier "Monterey". This ship being in the Pacific, he participated in several combat operations against the Imperial Japanese Navy.
Transferred to the reserve, Gerald Ford returned to his city palm Springs, where he began working as a practicing lawyer. Then he decided he'd go into politics.
Came in 1948. Candidate Ford pushed from the Republican party in the house of representatives of the Congress of the United States. With victory in these elections and began his career in politics. Ford was repeatedly elected to this position for many years, until 1973.
Sitting in the house of Representatives, politician participated in the investigation of the sensational assassination of President Kennedy in 1963. Did the Warren Commission, Ford was an active employee. However, a special Lavrov this work is not brought, because the results of the investigation, the Commission reported to the authorities and the public in the USA to date are criticized.
For completeness, the characteristics of the Ford policy, we note that he opposed escalation of the Vietnam war by the US was a supporter and friend of President Nixon.
In 1973, the tax scandal, was forced to resign, Spiro Agnew, former Vice-President. Using the corresponding constitutional amendment, President Nixon appointed Gerald Ford, the successor to the Agni.
A year later broke the infamous Watergate scandal, Nixon was threatened with impeachment. This led to a voluntary early resignation of the head of the White house. So, without elections and congresses, Vice-President Gerald Ford, according to the Constitution, became President of the United States, officially taking the post in 1974, 9 Aug. Before continuing our story will be appropriate to illustrate it. So here they are: Gerald Ford (photo below).
With regard to this area of work, it can be argued that President Gerald Ford has left its mark in international history. Continuing the policy of détente, begun by the previous President Nixon, Ford paid a visit to the USSR, continued started in 1971 and the normalization of relations with Communist China, has completed the Vietnam war.
However, there were negative moments. So, to bypass Congress on the orders of President Ford conducted a special operation in Cambodia. Detained by Cambodian military ships of the merchant ship United States and itsthe crew of 39 sailors returned safely, but died us Marines (41), was subjected to the bombardment of the Cambodian city of Sihanoukville. In 1975, again in secret from Congress, Ford authorized assistance to anti-government forces during the civil war in Angola. Foreign policy Gerald Ford, among others, had two important areas that deserve special attention. It – to defuse tensions and Vietnam. Next, let's talk more about that.
In 1975, President Ford made a visit to the USSR, where in Vladivostok met with the General Secretary of the CPSU L. I. Brezhnev Discussed at this meeting and the state of relations between USSR - USA and international issues and ways of reducing the threat of universal nuclear war. Within the last problems were solved the questions of limitation of strategic offensive arms.
At the same time, Ford signed the Helsinki accords on security and cooperation.
However, in this field the Democrats-congressmen to counter the efforts of the President. Congress adopted the amendment of Jackson-Vanik to the agreement on trade between the USSR and the United States from 1972 that tie the performance of this contract to the situation with civil rights in the Soviet Union.
A Particular page of American history is the involvement of States in the Vietnam war, or as it was called progressive politicians and journalists, Vietnam adventure USA. Not stopping all the vicissitudes and circumstances of this painful for the American society of campaign, except to say that in the years of the Ford administration was already known that the reason for the beginning of bombing of North Vietnam, the so-called Tonkin incident was a fake, concocted by us intelligence agencies. Practically the entire world is morally and financially supported the struggle of the Vietnamese people for independence and reunification of the country. In 1975, the DRV troops, was taken by storm Saigon - the capital of the Republic of South Vietnam, over the presidential Palace and hoisted the flag of victory.
The Americans evacuated their Embassy and the Vietnamese, who could not remain in the liberated country.
However, direct us military involvement in the hostilities ended earlier, in 1973, with the signing of the peace Treaty in Paris.
The Impact of war on American society was so strong that the United States abolished conscription and moved to a contract army. It began reform under President Nixon. The last draftee retired from the US army in 1974.
In General, as a society, and government as a result of the war was struck by the so-called Vietnam syndrome. That is, the society and the government carefully avoided the reason to be drawn into the same war. The consequences of this long influenced the foreign policy of presidents and of Congress.
At the same time became known the actions of US administrations in prior periods, the misrepresentation of public opinion as on the international stage and in America.
In this area a number of the President's actions caused the growth of discontent of citizens. So, in 1974, 8 September, Ford issued a decree that pardoned his predecessor for all, as it became known, remained undetected offenses against the country committed by Richard Nixon President of the United States.
As a result of this Amnesty, although it is consistent with constitutional norms, the President Gerald Ford has not developed a relationship with the Congress. Besides, most of it was for Democrats.
So, Congress refused to reduce spending on social needs. He's a Ford in the years of his reign, imposed more than 50 vetoes on various bills. In turn, Congress disagreed with the President, and approved them again. Ford was defeated in the issue of discounts for payment of income tax. The President essentially was a conservative, while the congressmen - the majority of liberals. And, contrary to the position of head of the White house, these discounts to get a person with a low income. Thus, domestic policy Gerald Ford could not be effective in the constant struggle with Congress.
In the time of the accession of Gerald Ford in the presidential position and during his reign the US was in deep economic crisis: inflation and unemployment are constantly rising, production was declining. The authorities were forced to significantly reduce public expenditure. Funding any program that is not associated to some extent with the needs of the Pentagon, actually stayed.
Despite a number of efforts and achievements, for all the efforts that made Gerald Ford, domestic and foreign policy, outlined in this article, did not enjoy wide popularity in American society. Measures to reduce the level of inflation was carried out urgently, but it caused unemployment to 12 %, started the great recession in the US economy since the great depression In 1929-1933.1974 permanent opponents of the Republicans - the Democrats won the midterm elections in both houses of Congress. Then came the turn of their triumph in the race for the presidency. Another - thirty-ninth President of the United States became the candidate of the democratic party.
Gerald Ford, after losing the presidential election to the candidate from the rival party, Jimmy Carter left the Oval office for a long time and worked at the American enterprise Institute.
During his stay at the highest post of the power structure of the United States, Ford had survived two failed assassination attempt on his life. Becoming the former President, he actually left politics.
In 2006, 26 December, former US President Gerald Ford, domestic and foreign policy which was already beginning to forget, died, leaving four children. And of course, quite noticeable trace in world history.
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